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来源:度排名知道健康    发布时间:2018年02月23日 10:20:52    编辑:admin         

Anniversary of credit crisis 信用危机 One year after the onset of a global credit crunch, has anything fundamentally changed? A year into the global credit crunch, \ Wall Street is still nursing its wounds. Investment banks are racking up billions of dollars in losses related to mortgages. Nine regional banks have been forced out of business. Stocks have dipped into bear market territory. Analysts say fear is still the prevailing emotion.I think it's going to be a very difficult path ahead. I don't think that you can visualize a recovery coming from Wall Street, because Wall Street has been based on innovation in the past years and I think that there is fear out there guiding any future innovation at least at this point in time.In Wall Street's absence, the US government has been trying to take the lead. The Bush administration's stimulus package passed in February put a little cash back in homeowners' pockets. The Federal Reserve also came to the aid of struggling mortgage finance giants Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Administration officials claim we are on the road to recovery.While home price adjustments will continue for some time, and certainly well beyond the end of this year, I believe we can move through the bulk of the correction in months rather than years.People we talked to on the streets of New York, however, did not share Paulson's optimism.I think we're in for a tough run, probably for the next 5 to 10 years.I have a friend that works in real estate in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and she's lost her job. And she's had, she's had her job for a long time. And she said it got so bad that in her office they couldn't even afford to buy toilet paper.So when can we expect these tough times to turn a little brighter? Analysts say, don't hold your breath.I think this is more a long term, a long term scenario where you would see recovery, that doesn't necessarily mean . It will depend on a great deal \ what the mortgage market does at the homeowner level, at the pricing level. Unfortunately these links there are still very very, very heavy.Government assistance and renewed confidence on Wall Street may help. But many market watchers, including former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, believe the global credit crisis won't end until the US housing market recovers. Maggie Lake, CNN, New York.200811/57107。

Mobile telecoms in America美国移动通讯业An audacious merger with a poor reception(注1)联姻大胆,反响不佳ATamp;T’s ambitious bid to reshape America’s wireless market has spooked rivals. But it faces significant hurdlesATamp;T的竞标雄心勃勃,意在重塑美国无线通讯市场,竞争对手惊慌失措。但并购也面临重大阻碍PEOPLE who enjoy poking fun at the patchy quality of ATamp;T’s mobile-phone network in America were provided with some fresh comedy material this week. “So, ATamp;T and T-Mobile are getting married. You’re all invited. But there will be no reception afterwards,” tweeted one wag after news emerged on March 20th that ATamp;T had bid a breathtaking billion for T-Mobile USA, a smaller wireless operator owned by Germany’s Deutsche Telekom.在美国,ATamp;T移动电话网络质量不稳常遭人取笑,那些以此为乐的人,本周有了新鲜笑料。3月20日,ATamp;T以390亿美元的惊人出价,竞购德国Deutsche Telekom公司旗下的小型无线通讯运营商T-Mobile USA,新闻曝光后,一条段子在Twitter上风传:“于是,ATamp;T跟T-Mobile喜结良缘。人人获邀出席。但之后却无人设宴,也无人赴宴。”Amusing as this is, the deal itself is no laughing matter. On the contrary, the proposed merger, which needs the approval of antitrust and telecoms regulators, has sparked a good deal of controversy over whether it will be good or bad for American consumers. Some members of Congress have called for a thorough review of the transaction and consumer groups have been quick to condemn it.段子很有趣,但交易本身却非笑料。相反,这桩须获反垄断机构及通讯监管机构批准的并购提案,引发了多场论战,争论此次交易对美国消费者是利是弊。一些国会议员呼吁全面评估这桩交易,而多个消费者团体迅速予以谴责。Their concern is hardly surprising. America’s four largest mobile-phone operators—ATamp;T, Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile USA and Sprint Nextel—aly account for 82% of the national market. Assuming the transaction goes ahead as planned, ATamp;T would add T-Mobile’s 34m customers to the 96m that it had at the end of 2010, propelling it well ahead of Verizon, its main rival.他们如此关注,并不足为奇。美国四大移动电话运营商——ATamp;T、Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile USA及Sprint Nextel,已占全美无线通讯市场的82%。去年底,ATamp;T用户达9600万,倘若交易如期进行,T-Mobile的3400万用户也收归帐下,ATamp;T就将大大领先其主要竞争对手Verizon。Critics of the deal, which ATamp;T hopes to complete within 12 months, say it will undermine efforts made many years ago to inject more competition into America’s telecoms industry. In the mid-1970s the government started investigating ATamp;T’s dominant position in fixed-line telephones, which led to the break up in 1984 of “Ma Bell” into eight pieces. Could the bid for T-Mobile be a sign that monopoly Ma is trying to return from her grave?ATamp;T希望此事一年搞定,但批评人士称,这将破坏多年前为促进美国通讯业竞争而作出的种种努力。上世纪七十年代中期,政府开始调查ATamp;T在固定电话业务上的主导地位,导致“贝尔大妈”在1984年被大卸八块。而今年这起竞购,会成为“大妈”试图起死回生的一个标志吗?201104/132568。

High-speed rail in China中国高铁Tracking slower追踪高铁减速A showcase line, but throttling back 一条示范航线,但是开始缩水Jun 30th 2011 | SHANGHAI | from the print edition THE heart of China’s national railway policy has been the pursuit of speed. And having built the world’s longest high-speed network from scratch, this week the country proudly launched its showcase project, the 1,318km (820-mile) Beijing-Shanghai line. Running at speeds of over 300km an hour, the sleek electric train cuts the travel time between China’s two most important cities by nearly half, to four hours and 48 minutes.中国国有铁路政策的核心就是追求高速。并且白手起家建起了世界上最长的高速铁路网,这周中国骄傲的宣布,这条起示范作用的的全长1318km(820英里)的京沪高铁开始运行。运行时速达到300km,这辆流线型的电车把中国最重要的两个城市的交通时间缩短了将近一半,降至4小时48分钟。The service is designed as a rival to air travel. Indeed, at Beijing South station, the ultra-modern facility resembles an airport. The other terminus, meanwhile, actually is at Shanghai’s domestic airport. But that means travellers lose the benefit of a downtown arrival, often touted as an advantage of trains. Even on intermediate stops, stations are far from urban centres.这条铁路务是为和航空竞争而设计的。在北京南站,这个超现代化的车站有点像飞机场。同时,另一个终点站实际上是在上海国内机场。这就意味着乘客失去了在市区下车的便利,这常常是用来夸耀的火车的优势。甚至在中间的站点,车站也离着市中心很远。201107/146097。

Music TortureGroups call on U.S. to stop using music as torture It is torture. I have no doubt about it in my mind. It is torture.Donald Vance was a detainee in the US military's Camp Cropper in Iraq, held for months after he reported evidence of corruption. Vance says he was forced to listen to ease but in music for months on end and that nearly drove him to suicide. Detainees, some US officials and human rights groups say US forces have systematically used loud music against hundreds of detainees in Afghanistan, Guantonamo Bay and Iraq.You can hear them screaming. You can hear them crying out aloud. They are usually calling out for their mothers or calling out for God to help them. And, yeah, you can, you can hear someone calling insane.But they keep loud all that long by blasting loud music. We're trying to get them stop it.In a campaign being launched on International Human Rights Day, Reprieve, a legal group, representing some Guantonamo detainees, along with musicians, are protesting the use of music during interrogations. Not all of the music can question it. It's hard rock either.~~Put down the duckie Put down the duckie Yeah, you gotta leave the duck alone...~~~Christopher Cerf, a songwriter for Sesame Street was horrified to learn that songs he penned for children's TV shows were used in interrogations.Humorously, I made the point that I was going to sacrifice those, those writings for my country. But this is not the way I want my songs to use.Reprieve Zero DB for Zero decibel campaign calls for the enforcement of UN convention against torture and the courageous musicians to hold a minute of silence at concerts. One interrogator at Guantonamo bragged that he needed only four days to break someone, using music and lights. Ruhal Ahmed, a British citizen who was captured in Afghanistan told Reprieve he was much worst when the music started.That makes you feel like you are going mad. After the wall, you don't hear the lyrics. All you heard is heavy, heavy band gink.A Guantonamo Bay spokeswoman would give details of 'when' and 'how' music has been used at the prison and would also not respond when I asked whether music might be used again in the future.Tracy Brown, the Associated Press.200812/59478。

Time to stop play-acting and spit out the tea是时候停止演戏,摒弃茶党思维了The Republicans are not being serious about the deficit共和党人没有认真对待赤字问题THIRTY billion dollars is a lot of money for anyone except America’s government. In Washington it is a bagatelle: about what the feds spend in three days, or less than 2% of the predicted budget deficit for this year. Yet in the peculiar battle that is now raging over the budget for a fiscal year aly half over, billion is all that now separates the Republicans and the Democrats, who have been bickering for the past 14 months over the details. Because neither side thinks it can afford to back down, the risks of a government shutdown are rising fast; without an agreement, the government will run out of money on April 8th.300亿美元对任何人来说都是一笔巨款,但对美国政府来说不是。对华盛顿来讲,300亿美元只是小菜一碟:大概相当于联邦政府三天的开销,预计还不到今年财政赤字的2%。然而在这场持续了将近半个财政年度的罕见战争中,就是这300亿美元成为了共和党人和民主党人的分歧所在,在过去的14个月中双方一直在为细节问题争吵不休。因双方均不想为之让步,政府倒闭的风险正迅速增加;如果达不成协议,到4月8日政府将无运转资金。Some irresponsible people, on both sides of the political aisle, think that a temporary shutdown would not matter all that much. A fair few Democrats hope that the Republicans will be blamed for their intransigence, as they were at the time of the last shutdown, in 1995-96 (though they may be disappointed on that score, since public opinion swung against the Republicans in 1996 only after their leader, Newt Gingrich, made a fool of himself over a seat on Air Force One). Those of a tea-partyish persuasion imagine that they will be politically rewarded by their supporters for sticking to their guns, and that the only good government is one on enforced leave.两党中有些不负责任的人认为政府暂时倒闭不会有太大影响。相当一部分民主党人认为毫不让步的共和党人应受谴责,正如1995-1996年间政府倒闭时共和党人备受指责一样(虽然对此他们倍感失望,因为1996年公众批评共和党人完全是因为其党首纽特·金里奇为了空军一号的一个座位而犯傻)。那些持茶党思维的人认为坚守立场会得到其持者的政治持,而且一个好政府是被迫“休假”的政府。In the short term, it is true, a shutdown would be far from catastrophic; soldiers will continue to fight; aircraft will not collide; Social Security (pensions) cheques will mostly continue to be automatically sent out. But it would still be highly disruptive, not least for government employees who will not get paid, and it will inconvenience people and businesses in countless ways. That is no small matter while the recovery remains so fragile.确实,短期来讲,政府关门绝不是什么灾难性事件;士兵会继续战斗,飞机不会坠毁,绝大部分社会保险也会自动发放。但它仍极具杀伤力,特别是对那些拿不到薪水的政府工作人员。它也将给公众和企业带来诸多不便。在经济恢复仍旧脆弱的背景下,这绝不是什么小事。More worrying than a shutdown itself would be its implications. If the politicians’ attempts to resolve one year’s budget end in acrimonious collapse, what hope is there of reaching agreement on issues that require both sides to take much more political punishment? Later in April another battle looms, this time over the need for an extension to America’s debt limit, currently set at .3 trillion and now very close to being reached. A row over the fiscal 2011 budget might not alarm investors too much; a fight over authorising money that ultimately could be needed to pay international creditors is quite another thing.比政府倒闭更让人担忧的是其暗示意义。如果政治家们解决一年预算问题的努力都付诸东流,两党严重分裂,那又有什么希望让双方接受更多的政治让步,就诸多议题达成一致呢?四月后期另一场战役也会打响,这场战役关于是否需要放宽美国的债务限额。目前债务限额为14.3万亿美元,且已逼近底线。因2011年财政预算产生的严重分歧可能并不会使投资者过度担忧;最终可能还需要政府资金付欠债权国的债务,而就这笔资金产生的争论则是另外一种景象了。201104/130973。

The Boyz Are BackBoyz II Men are back with a new album of Motown hitsGrammy winning group is considered as one of the most successful Ramp;B group of all time, selling inestimated, get this 60 million records. They’ve dominated the charts with their classic Motown hits. And now, the boys are back. We’re so thrilled to be joined by Boys II Men today as they unveil their brand new album “Motown, A Journey through Hitsville USA”. Thanks so much for being here. Hey! Hello. Good to be here. Good to be here. Yes, it is. Yes, it is.So the album, it sounds fantastic, (Thank you!) tell me about it, coz it’s the classic, (Yes, yes, yes!) why did you guys decide to do that?Well, it was an idea that came to our management by actually a group of guys, who were thinking about doing something like this, David Sumonie anda couple of other people. They actually came to management and said, “you know what the guys’ll be interested in?’ When they came to us with the idea, we were like “Oh, it sounds like something that’ll be very very interesting to do kinda nostalgic, because we started off from Motown”. So, you know, now being back on Universal after taking, er, the high 80s from record labels for a many being independent. We came back to Universal, and now we’re doing Motown songs. So it’s like a full-circle-type thing. It’s great that you guys coz you have been, you've been two decades in the business. So you have the ability to say, no, it's not the time. We can wait. (Yeah! yeah, that's it!) And have you guys, you know, stayed together, and they seem to get along, but do you really behind the scene?Absolutely we get along, I mean just like any brotherhood or any family type or into situation, you know. We have ups and downs, we have our problems you know, a little, you know, a little secrecies there, we, you know kinda like showing off, this guy is bugging right now. But in our actuality you know we love each other, we’re bothers. And the beautiful thing about it is music made us love each other. As long as music is here, and as long as we are gonna be here with each other. Yes, it’s based on the real thing. It’s not about we wanna a contrived group, we want a group that was made by some manager guy that sort of putting together a bunch of dudes that sing harmony, we put ourselves together. And it’s just like Wanya said it’s the music, and a love with the music that we mutually have, and that’s the tie that binds. And I have to ask coz you’re working with Randy Jackson, (Yes!) an American Idol fame who’s also a Grammy winning producer. Tell me how, what was that like?Well it was a great experience for all of us. I mean, We’ve known Randy for years, but we never really had a chance to work with him, in this type of fashion. And when we came up with the idea for the album, we weren’t sure how we want to produce the actual music inside of it. But we came up with an idea to produce it all-live, all-live instruments which was a great thing for us. And the list of producers that we had kinda got narrowed down when we went that direction. And Randy was the one who seemed to best fit the bill for what we were trying to do. And he is just a great guy, and I mean, he is a good dude, very insightful and he is very honest, and he is one of those guys you can bounce a lot of ideas off. He’ll soon give you his honest opinions. It was just a great relaxed atmosphere and it was nothing rush, so we didn’t have to… you know we didn’t have our backs up against the wall for time or whatever. We just went in, tried to follow into the characters of the songs we were singing. It was just a great atmosphere altogether.Alright, and it comes throughout the album. And you know I can’t let you go without asking for a little sample. Can you sing me a little song, ok?Okay! We’re gonna give you a little sample, we actually redid one of our own songs on the album, “End of the Road”. We did add a capella with our good friend Brain McKnight, he helped us out on the production on that part. So we are gonna give you just give you a little, a little snippet. Okay!Although we've come to the end of the roadStill I can't let you goIt's unnatural, you belong to me, I belong to youCome to the end of the roadStill I can't let you goIt's unnatural, you belong to me, I belong to youOh, fantastic, that is ballad right there. Thank you guys so much, it's such a fun to have you here. Thank you so much.Definitely.03/63454。

Afghanistan's Karzai Offers Peace to 'Friendly Taliban'卡尔扎伊吁与基地无关塔利班返国 At a high-level security conference in Munich, Germany Afghan President Hamid Karzai defended his country's progress toward peace Sunday and urged reconciliation with members of the Taliban that were not part of al-Qaida. 阿富汗总统卡尔扎伊星期天在德国慕尼黑的高级别安全会议结束前为阿富汗和平所取得的进展进行辩护,并敦促没有加入基地组织的塔利班成员同政府和解。In remarks before world leaders and senior security experts, Afghan President Hamid Karzai refuted criticism that Afghanistan was a failed state, saying his war-torn country could achieve success with the right approach. And he invited members of the Taliban movement that had no ties to al-Qaida and wanted peace to return to their country. 卡尔扎伊向世界各国领导人和高级安全问题专家发表讲话。他反驳了关于阿富汗政府执政失败的批评,并说被战火蹂躏的阿富汗可以通过正确的途径取得成功。他还邀请那些同基地组织没有关系并渴望和平的塔利班成员返回阿富汗。"We will invite all those Taliban, who are not part of al-Qaida, who are not part of terrorist networks, who want to return to their country, who want to live by the constitution of Afghanistan, and who want to have peace in the country and live a normal life to participate, to come back to their country," said Hamid Karzai. "And, I would request the international community to back us in this - fully." 他说:“我们将邀请所有没有加入基地组织、没有加入恐怖组织、想返回祖国、想尊重阿富汗宪法、想看到阿富汗和平、想过正常生活的塔利班成员参加和平进程,返回阿富汗。我要求国际社会对此予以全力持。”Mr. Karzai spoke during the final hours of a security conference in Munich that has touched on other critical issues - Iran's nuclear program, US relations with Russia and western Europe and last year's conflict between Russia and Georgia, among others. 卡尔扎伊是在德国慕尼黑安全问题会议快结束时说这番话的。这次会议还讨论了其它一些关键性议题,包括伊朗核项目、美国同俄罗斯及西欧的关系以及俄罗斯同格鲁吉亚去年暴发的冲突等等。U.S. National Security Adviser retired General James Jones told the conference that the NATO alliance must succeed in Afghanistan. 美国国家安全事务顾问、退休将军琼斯在会上表示,北约联军必须在阿富汗取得胜利。"We cannot afford failure in Afghanistan. And that's why the Obama administration will work closely with NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization] and with the Afghan and Pakistani governments to forge a new comprehensive strategy to meet achievable goals," said James Jones. "And, this will be a shared effort with our allies. Afghanistan is not simply an American problem, it is an international problem." 他说:“我们无法承担在阿富汗失败带来的后果。这就是为什么奥巴马政府要同北约、阿富汗和巴基斯坦政府紧密合作,建立一个新的整体战略,以实现可达到的目标。这需要美国和我们的盟友共同努力。阿富汗并不只是美国的问题,而是一个国际问题。”The conference marked an opportunity for the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama to meet with key leaders and defense specialists from around the world. 这次安全问题会议为奥巴马政府成员同各国高级领导人和国防专家提供了见面的机会。That included talks Sunday between Vice President Joseph Biden and Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov. Their discussions marked the highest level meeting between Russia and the ed States since President Obama took office last month. 其中包括美国副总统拜登和俄罗斯副总理伊万诺夫在星期天举行会谈。这是奥巴马上个月就任总统以来美俄官员间的最高级别会晤。02/62058。

[00:21.34]People who are neurotic-[00:23.16]they tend to worry a lot [00:24.72]and to have emotional ups and downs-[00:27.25]seem to be at increased risk of developing asthma, [00:31.19]a new study hints. [00:39.78]一份新的研究显示,[00:41.25]神经质的人一般都是那些整天心事重重,[00:44.37]情绪波动大的人,[00:46.33]而且这些人似乎越来越容易患上哮喘病。[01:02.11]即时讲解[01:05.39]如果大家查字典,[01:06.96]neurotic的中文意义会是"神经病"或"有经病的",[01:11.30]给人的感觉 ,一个neurotic的人与疯子基本是划等号了,[01:15.86]事实上这还是有相当的区别的。[01:18.64]就好象今天的报道中也说neurotic的人[01:21.37]总是worry a lot"担心这个,担心那个",[01:25.26]然后是情绪也是有ups and downs,[01:27.84]总之非常不稳定,但即使是这样,[01:30.72]这个人还不用送到mental hospital"精神病院"[01:34.46]在2003年的时候美国爆发Mad Cow Disease"疯牛病",[01:39.06]美国的老百姓对牛肉是避之唯恐不及,[01:42.75]这样的做法自然会对一个牛肉生产大国的经济有严重影响。[01:47.41]于是,布什就跑出来发表讲话,安定民心。[01:50.80]他说"疯牛病"只是一种mildly neurotic的症状。[01:54.79]这到底是什么意思?[01:56.97]mildly 是"温和地",[01:59.19]也就是说那些疯牛只是有"轻度的神经质",[02:02.88]连神经衰弱的程度都不够![02:05.41]然后布什又说[02:06.77] "I'm still eating plenty of beef. [02:09.31]I think everyone will agree that I'm not insane yet." [02:13.30]"牛肉我还是大吃特吃。我想你们不会认为我是疯了"。[02:17.90]最后布什总统再次为牛平反, [02:20.73]他说,"That cow wasn't paranoid," [02:23.76]"那些疯牛并没有得妄想症"。 [02:26.30]在布什总统的这番话后,民众得出一个结论 [02:29.58]Bush is a neurotic,"布什神经有问题"。 [02:38.25]原文重听[02:40.23]People who are neurotic-[02:41.90]they tend to worry a lot [02:43.61]and to have emotional ups and downs-[02:45.99]seem to be at increased risk of developing asthma, [02:49.98]a new study hints.10/88100。

Smaller is more beautiful更小,却更美丽Many other cities are battling problems almost as acute as Detroit’s很多其他城市正在积极应对和底特律一样急迫的问题THE five kinds of heirloom tomatoes on Joanna Lehrman’s and Roxanne Adair’s farm look delicious. Their tiny two-acre (0.8 hectare) farm also has a buzzing beehive and a hoop house, which protects produce in the winter. It is just a short walk from downtown Flint, a gritty struggling Michigan city. Until about a year ago the land was 16 abandoned residential lots along Beach Street, filled with rubbish, broken pieces of concrete and burnt trees. According to Doug Weiland, who runs the Genesee County Land Bank, a third of all Flint’s parcels are abandoned. Even seemingly stable neighbourhoods have boarded up houses.在琼娜-勒曼和洛克森-艾黛儿的农场种植的五种看起来非常好吃。除此之外,在他们的农场里还有一个嗡嗡作响的蜂巢和冬天保护作物的大棚。从弗林特 – 一个在密歇根州常年与风沙作战的城市的闹市区到他们面积约两英亩(合0.8公顷)的小型农场只要走很短的一段路。直到一年以前,这块地还是沙滩街边上16个废弃的住宅用地,上面堆满了垃圾,破碎的混凝土块还有烧焦的树干。据乔纳斯郡土地的经营者道格-维兰德说,弗林特三分之一的土地被荒芜了。甚至看起来稳定的区域房子也被钉上了木板封起来了。Flint is one of many cities in America’s rustbelt, like Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Youngstown and Rochester, which have seen dramatic drops in population over the past half century or so. When manufacturing left these cities, so did their residents. In 1968, General Motors, which was founded in Flint, employed 80,000 employees there. Today, there are only 6,000. The city’s population has halved since 1960, falling from 197,000 to just over 100,000; proportionately, it has suffered nearly as badly as Michigan’s largest city, Detroit. Many unable to sell were forced to abandon their houses. Others lost their homes to foreclosure. The rustbelt cities of the Midwest and north-east have been in decline for decades, but it has taken decades for many of them to accept that no one was coming to save them.弗林特是处在锈带的众多城市的其中之一,其他城市像底特律,克里夫兰,水牛城,匹兹堡,杨斯敦和罗切斯特,都在过去的大约半个世纪内,经历了人口大幅下滑。随着制造业离开了这些城市,城市的居民也随之离开了。在1968年,通用汽车在弗林特,也就是它成立的地方,雇佣了80000名员工。而今天,只剩下了6000名。城市的人口数相较于1960年的197000己经下降了一半,至100000出头。与此相类似的是密歇根最大的城市底特律,它的情况一样糟,许多人卖不出被强制将房子闲置。另一些人失去了他们的家并丧失了赎回权。中西部和东北部的锈带城市在过去的几十年里都有不同程度的衰落,但是他们花了几十年才接受这样一个事实,即没有人会来拯救他们。These cities—many with acres of abandoned property—are finally and desperately trying to come up with stabilising plans. This is no easy task with a poor, ageing and dwindling tax base, expensive health and pension legacy costs, reduced commercial activity, high unemployment and high crime. Some of the problems of shrinking cities are so fundamental that there is no quick fix. For instance, the need to diversify was long ignored. Many of the rustbelt’s cities were single industry towns. Some were single company towns, like Kodak in New York’s Rochester or GM in Flint.这些有着大量闲置土地的城市拼命努力要想出稳定计划。这在当前不良,陈旧,萧条的税务基础,昂贵的医疗和退休及遗赠成本,萎靡的商业活动,高失业率和犯罪率的情况下并不是一件容易的任务。这些萎缩城市的一些问题是那么地基础以至于不能够很快地得到解决。譬如说,多样化的需要一直被忽略。很多锈带城市属于那种单一的工业城镇。而一些则是属于单一公司的城镇,像柯达所在的纽约罗切斯特或是通用汽车所在的弗林特。Flint is in the middle of developing a 20-year master plan, the first since Jack Kennedy was in the White House. The old thinking was to sell tax-foreclosed property to whomever, even speculators. The new thinking is that land is an asset for the city. Since its creation in 2002, the Genesee County Land Bank has had the power to take control of and to redevelop vacant, abandoned or tax-delinquent properties. Neighbours are encouraged to buy abandoned adjacent property for as little as . Alternative land use is encouraged. Ms Adair and Ms Lehrman own three of their farm’s lots, which they bought for 0 each from the Genesee County Land Bank. The rest they lease. The land bank has been a model for other cities and states, like Ohio and Georgia. Just this summer, Andrew Cuomo, New York’s governor, signed a bill allowing land banks.弗林特正在制定一个20年的总体规划,这也是自从肯尼迪入主白宫之后的第一次。老的想法是把那些没收的房产卖给任何想买的人,即便是投机商。而新的想法是,土地是城市的财产。自从2002年成立以来,乔纳斯郡土地就拥有权力控制并再发展那些 空置的,废弃的,或是因未缴纳地税而被没收的地产。邻居们被鼓励以至少50美元的价格购买边上被闲置的地产。将这些地产挪作他用也是被鼓励的。艾黛儿女士和勒曼女士拥有构成她们农场地块中的三块,其中每一块都是她们花了100美元从乔纳斯郡土地购取的,余下的土地则是租赁的。这家土地已经成为其他城市和州(例如俄亥俄和佐治亚)的一个榜样。就在这个夏天,纽约州长安德鲁-郭沫签署了允许土地存在的法案。Pittsburgh is often pointed to as a model for other shrinking cities. Its revival since its steel industry collapsed in the early 1980s is partly thanks to good long-term planning. Under the leadership of Tom Murphy, a three-term mayor, more than 1,000 acres of abandoned, blighted industrial land in Pittsburgh was cleaned up and is now thriving commercial, retail, residential and public space. Once lined with factories the city’s waterfront has been given over to parks. Mr Murphy oversaw the development of more than 25 miles of new trails alongside the river and urban green space. He helped develop public-private partnerships which leveraged .8 billion in economic development.匹兹堡通常被指认为是其他萎缩城市的一个榜样。它的重整旗鼓要追溯到80年代前期,也就是其钢铁工业溃败的开始。这也要归功于一个好的长期计划。在连任三届的市长汤姆-莫非的领导下,匹兹堡超过1000英亩废弃的衰落的土地被清理干净,今天它们以商业区,零售店,住宅区和公共用地的方式兴盛着。曾经林立着工厂的滨江区现在让位给了公园。莫非先生监督了超过25英里的河边小道以及城市绿地的建设。他帮助建立了公共-个人的关系体系,这也让他借到了48亿美元用于经济建设。As well as land, there are other assets, such as institutional “anchors”, even in the poorest of cities. Anchors can be hospitals and universities, arts organisations, and foundations (the Mott and Ford Foundations have been especially helpful to shrinking cities). Cleveland has its famous Clinic. Detroit Medical Centre, the Henry Ford Hospital and Wayne State University provide the same service for Detroit (see article).和土地一样,就算是最穷的城市也有其他的财产,像一些机构的“锚”。这些锚可以是医院和大学,艺术机构和基金会(莫特和福特基金会对萎缩城市的帮助特别大)。克里夫兰有其有名的医疗务。底特律医学中心,亨利-福特医院和韦恩州立大学为底特律市提供同样的务。Changing attitudes is essential. The American Assembly at Columbia University, which recently published a report on post-industrial cities, used the term “legacy cities” as “shrinking” and “resizing” can have negative connotations. Youngstown, a steel town, was devastated when its mills closed: over 30 years it lost more than half its population and thousands of jobs. It adopted a plan in 2005 which demanded accepting it is a smaller city. This is crucial, says Dan Kildee of the Centre for Community Progress. “Then you can get people’s minds to focus on what’s next and not what has been lost.” And there is hope. Bruce Katz of the Brookings Institution has long believed these cities will once again be the engines of their regional economies. Pittsburgh, for instance, reinvented itself as a successful tech and health hub, even as its population continues to fall. As Aristotle put it, “a great city should not be confounded with a populous one.”改变态度是必须的。哥伦比亚大学的美国集会最近发表了一则后工业城市的报告,其中使用了“遗留城市”。因为“萎缩”和“尺寸调整”可能会有负面的涵义。钢铁城市杨斯敦在工厂关闭之后就荒芜了:在超过30年的时间里,它的人口数下降了一半以上,损失了数以千计的就业岗位。它在2005年采用了一项计划,该计划要求它必须接受这样一个事实,即它不再像过去那么大了。这是很关键的,社区发展中心的丹-基尔迪说“这样你就能让人们把焦点移到什么是接下来要做的而不是我们损失了什么。”希望是有的。布鲁金斯学院的布鲁斯-凯兹一直相信这些城市将会再次成为区域经济发展的引擎。举例说,匹兹堡已经转型成为一个成功的科技和健康医疗中心,即使是在人口持续下降的情况下。就像亚里士多德说的“伟大的城市不一定是人口多的城市。”201111/159865。