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2018年04月26日 19:28:07来源:飞度排名动态新闻网

  • Getting too little sleep for several nights in a row disrupts hundreds of genes that are essential for good health, including those linked to stress and fighting disease.连续几个晚上睡眠过少会扰乱数以百计对身体健康必不可少的基因,包括那些与压力有关以及对抗疾病的基因。Tests on people who slept less than six hours a night for a week revealed substantial changes in the activity of genes that govern the immune system, metabolism, sleep and wake cycles, and the body#39;s response to stress, suggesting that poor sleep could have a broad impact on long-term wellbeing.对连续一周每晚睡不到六个小时的人的测试揭示了控制免疫系统、代谢、睡眠和清醒周期以及身体应激反应的那些基因活动的明显变化,这表明睡眠不好对长期健康有广泛影响。The changes, which affected more than 700 genes, may shed light on the biological mechanisms that raise the risk of a host of ailments, including heart disease, diabetes, obesity, stress and depression, in people who get too little sleep.这些变化,影响超过700个基因,可能阐明了那些睡眠过少的人会增加一系列包括心脏病、糖尿病、肥胖、压力和抑郁等疾病风险的生物机制。Previous studies have suggested that people who sleep less than five hours a night have a 15% greater risk of death from all causes than people of the same age who get a good night#39;s sleep. In one survey of workers in Britain more than 5% claimed to sleep no more than five hours a night. Another survey published in the US in 2010 found that nearly 30% of people claimed to sleep no more than six hours a night.先前的研究显示:那些夜里睡眠少于5个小时的人比能睡个好觉的同龄人多增了因各种原因而死亡的15%的风险。在对英国工人的一项调查中,超过5%的人声称每晚睡眠不超过5小时。另一个2010年在美国发表的调查发现,近30%的人声称每晚不超过6小时睡眠。The time spent asleep had a huge effect on the activity of genes, picked up from blood tests on the volunteers, according to a report in the US journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Among the sleep-deprived, the activity of 444 genes was suppressed, while 267 genes were more active than in those who slept for longer.睡眠时间对基因活动有巨大影响,从血液测试志愿者那采集的,根据《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一份报告。在睡眠不足的人中, 444个基因活动被抑制,而267个基因比那些睡得更长的人的基因更活跃。Changes to genes that control metabolism might trigger or exacerbate conditions such as diabetes or obesity, while disruption to other genes, such as those that govern the body#39;s inflammatory response, might have an impact on heart disease. Further genes that were affected have been linked to stress and ageing.控制代谢的基因变化可能会引发或加剧像糖尿病或肥胖那样的情况,而破坏其他基因,比如那些掌控身体应激反应的基因,可能会对心脏疾病有影响。被影响的其他基因与压力和老化有关。Sleep loss also had a dramatic effect on genes that govern the body#39;s biological clock, suggesting that poor sleep might trigger a vicious cycle of worsening sleep disruption.睡眠不足对配人体生物钟的基因也有巨大影响,这表明睡眠不足可能引发恶化的睡眠中断的恶性循环。Jim Horne, professor of psychophysiology at Loughborough University#39;s Sleep Research Centre, said: ;The potential perils of #39;sleep debt#39; in today#39;s society and the need for #39;eight hours of sleep a night#39; are often overplayed and can cause undue worry. Although this important study seems to support this concern, the participants had their sleep suddenly restricted to an unusually low level, which must have been somewhat stressful.吉姆#8226;霍恩,拉夫堡大学睡眠研究中心的心理生理学教授,说:“ 在今天社会‘睡眠债’的潜在危险以及需要‘每晚八小时睡眠’往往被夸大,会导致过度忧虑。尽管这一重要研究似乎持这一担忧,但参与者使其睡眠突然限于异常低的水平,这一定是有些紧张。”;We must be careful not to generalise such findings to,then say, habitual six-hour sleepers who are happy with their sleep. Besides, sleep can adapt to some change, and should also be judged on its quality, not simply on its total amount.;“我们必须小心地不去归纳这些发现,然后说习惯于六小时睡眠的人满意他们的睡眠。此外,睡眠可以适应于一些变化,也应根据其质量来判断,而不是简单地根据其总量。” /201302/227077。
  • Tighten your belt刚刚才发薪水,有人提议这个周末大家一起上馆子打打牙祭。我因为想要减肥,好穿新近买的一条短裙,推辞说: “No, I don#39;t think I can make it. I want to tighten my belt.”后来,Mary悄悄地问我:“如果你最近手头不方便的话, 我能帮你什么忙吗?”不会啊,不是早晨才发了薪水吗?我被她问得一头雾水,解释半天才弄明白。原来, “tighten my belt” 是指经济拮据,必须节衣缩食度日。例如: “The harvest was bad last year, we all had to tighten our belts.”  Whipping boy大家可能对 “scapegoat”的意思非常熟悉,但是对 “whipping boy ”可能并不熟悉,实际上二者的意思非常接近。Whipping boy 的比喻义就是“充当替罪羊的人或物,代人受过”。这个短语在实际中用途颇多。如:“ one #39;right#39; way to teach ing……To support phonics instruction and make the advocates of #39;whole language#39; the whipping boy does a disservice to our schools and teachers” (摘自1997年《时代周刊》);又如:“Building 31 also is not immune from the siege mentality that generally can mark Microsoft. #39;We#39;re very much a whipping boy in the academic community#39;”  With bells on周末准备开个Party,给朋友们发了请柬,收到的回信大都写着:“I would be there with bells on.” 这一句话弄的我不知道他们是来还是不来,是不是都要送我一个铃铛(bell)。With bells on 最普通的用法是用于非正式场合,意思是渴望做某事,准备玩个痛快(early; y to enjoy oneself)。如果请柬的回信上写着I#39;ll be there with bells on,那么回信的人不仅仅是期盼着某一场合(通常是聚会)的到来,同时还要为活动助兴,贡献自己的节目,让大家感到尽兴。With bells on的用法是非常有局限性的。多数情况下它的用法已经固定化、格式化,可以说已经成为社会礼仪用法的一部分,并被广泛应用于回复喜庆活动的邀请。使用这个短语意在向主人保被应邀人届时肯定会到场并确信活动会搞得气氛热烈。而且with bells on 前面也一定会加上一句“I will be there”或者“I would be there”。如果你是被邀请去看电影,那么千万别用being there with bells on做回复语;如果你收到哈佛大学的录取通知书,你也千万别回复他们“I will be there in September with bells on”, 否则,一切都要被你给搅浑了。当然了,这个句子并不是永远都是由七个单词组成。F. Scott Fitzgerald在他的作品Beautiful amp; Damned(1922)里使用这个句子时,就把短语最后面的介词给拿掉了。他在这样写到:“All-ll-ll righty. I#39;ll be there with bells”。人们大多认为这个短语的起源和喜庆活动中使用铃铛有关系(手指、脚指上挂满铃铛最能营造节日气氛)。也有人认为这和活跃气氛的小丑帽子上一个个像小铃铛一样的装饰品很有关系。  Sleep tight当我把三岁的女儿抱到床上,对她说:“Sleep tight”的时候,她却反问我:“妈妈,#39;Sleep tight#39;是什么意思?是不是我的被子得盖得严严(tight)的?”其实不然,sleep tight是指睡的好,睡的香。一位威斯彻斯特县(Westchester County)的导游曾介绍这个短语的来源,他说“Sleep tight”是指过去人们床板上的鬃绳,稻草的垫子就铺在纵横交错的鬃绳上,鬃绳起到弹簧的作用。这些鬃绳要定期的进行绷紧,睡着才舒,否则鬃绳则变的松松垮垮,很不舒。很多网站也都引用了这种说法。也有的说法说Sleep tight 的来历和海军有直接关系。因为海军用的吊床只有把绳子勒紧时才会睡得舒。按照牛津字典的解释,副词tightly在17世纪晚期的意思是soundly, properly或well.莎士比亚《温莎的风流娘儿们》(The Merry Wives of Windsor)有这样的句子“Hold Sirha, beare you these letters tightly.” 18世纪晚期tight有soundly(熟睡的), roundly(完全的)的意思。1898玛丽-阿奈特-冯-阿尼姆在她的《伊莉莎白和她的德国花园》(Elizabeth and Her German Garden)里写“She had been so tight asleep.”有一段民间儿童诗歌,其中tight的意思就是soundly.诗歌创作的具体时间无从考,不过诗歌最后两行明显透露着维多利亚时代的文风。Good night, sleep tight,Wake up brightIn the morning lightTo do what#39;s rightWith all your might.大多数美国儿童可能对下面这段形成于19世纪的儿歌更为熟悉:“Good night, sleep tight. Don#39;t let the bed bugs bite.”  ShoestringShoestring(鞋带),如果有人对你说: “I started my business on a shoestring”,你可别认为他是卖鞋带起家的。“To do business or to operate on a shoestring” 是说“用极少的本钱开始做生意”,所以上面那句话的意思是“我开始创业时只有极少的资金。”如果用“on a shoestring”来形容一个人的经济状况,那这个人的日子肯定过得“上顿不接下顿”(living hand to mouth) ,也就是说这个人离破产不远了。Shoestring(鞋带)为什么会有这些意思,是因为鞋带都很细而且不结实?我们现在很难确定shoestring成为“钱少得可怜”的代名词到底起源于何处。Christine Ammer 在《美国习语词典》(The American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms)提出了这样一种有趣的设想:在英国,被关进监狱的负债人,把两根鞋带接起来栓到一只鞋子上,把这只鞋子从窗口塞出去,悬挂在监狱的外墙上,希望籍此得到窗外偶尔路过的行人施舍的钱财。这种说法听起来很有创意,实际上不过是一则毫无根据的想象而已。认为鞋带本身细而不坚实的特征是使shoestring让人联想到“小额资金”的说法也许还比较有说力。鞋带的细长(slender shoestring)正好和资金的微薄(slender resources)在英语中是一个词。说了半天问题还是没有解决;为什么要选择“鞋带”作为“贫困”的象征?虽说找不到完全确定的,不过我们可以从19世纪后期美国人的著作当中寻得一些蛛丝马迹。我们知道,一副鞋带万一有一条坏了的话,另外一条可以保留下来捆绑点小东西什么的。作家们发现用“鞋带”来表达确确实实存在、作用和价值又非常有限的事物是再合适不过了。1859年7月份的《亚特兰大月刊》上有这样一句引语:“If, now, I had in my possession even an old shoestring that had ever been his, I would beg you to return it to him, and find out for me where I can go never to see him”又如:“Those who have all their lives been in the habit of depending upon sight for everything, from the study of philosophy and the Scriptures to the tying of a shoestring, cannot seem to understand that hearing and touch may with practice be made to serve nearly all purposes about as well, and some very much better” (摘自The Century收录的一篇写于1887年关于盲人教育的文章)。撇开shoestring起源的种种说法不说,自19世纪90年代早期,shoestring一出现就使人联想到“资金的匮乏”,尤其是指那些在非常小的赌金上下赌注的赌徒,他们被称为shoestring gamblers.《牛津英语词典》在1904年对这种用法专门做了一个词条,并收录了下面的例句:“ He……speculated #39;on a shoe-string#39;——an exceedingly slim margin”。从此以后,这个词条一直很有生命力。现在,on a shoestring 和shoestring应用的语言环境非常的宽松,如:“globetrotting(环球旅行)on a shoestring” ,广告中出现的“Adventures on a Shoestring” .在这些用法当中,shoestring的意思显然没有“赤贫、贫困”的意思,这里所说的shoestring是指量力而行的省钱的安排。 /201303/230338。
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