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南方医科大学深圳医院韩式三点多少钱深圳市人民医院修眉手术多少钱深圳伊斯佑医院狐臭多少钱 Science and Technology Education Learning difficulties科技 教育 学习的难处Making something hard to means it is more likely to be remembered读起来费劲记起来就容易A PARADOX of education is that presenting information in a way that looks easy to learn often has the opposite effect.关于教学有个看似矛盾之处:用一种看起来简单的方式呈现信息通常会适得其反。Numerous studies have demonstrated that when people are forced to think hard about what they are shown they remember it better, so it is worth looking at ways this can be done.大量研究已表明,如果能迫使人们费一番力气去考虑他所看到的东西,那么他记忆的效果就会更好。所以,有哪些方法能让人们去;费这个力气;值得关注。And a piece of research about to be published in Cognition, by Daniel Oppenheimer, a psychologist at Princeton University, and his colleagues, suggests a simple one: make the text conveying the information harder to .由普林斯顿大学心理学家,丹尼尔 奥本海默及其同事们共同完成的一项研究结果即将发表在《认知》杂志上,提出了一种很简单的方法:让传达信息的文本读起来更费劲一些。Dr Oppenheimer recruited 28 volunteers aged between 18 and 40 and asked them to learn, from written descriptions, about three ;species; of extraterrestrial alien, each of which had seven features.奥本海默士招募了28名年龄在18到40岁的志愿者,要求他们从书面文本的描述中学习关于三;种;外星生物的知识,其中每种生物又包含了七种特征。This task was meant to be similar to learning about animal species in a biology lesson. It used aliens in place of actual species to be certain that the participants could not draw on prior knowledge.这项任务旨在模拟生物课上学习动物种类的过程,它之所以用外星生物代替实际物种,是为了确保测试者不会凭借其原有的知识进行记忆。Half of the volunteers were presented with the information in difficult-to- fonts (12-point Comic Sans MS 75% greyscale and 12-point Bodoni MT 75% greyscale).半数志愿者读的信息是;难看;的字体(12磅,Comic Sans MS字体,灰度75%和12磅Bodoni字体,灰度75%)。The other half saw it in 16-point Arial pure-black font, which tests have shown is one of the easiest to .另外半数读的则是16磅大小、Arial纯黑字体(这种字体经测试表明,读起来最省力)。Participants were given 90 seconds to memorise the information in the lists. They were then distracted with unrelated tasks for a quarter of an hour or so, before being asked questions about the aliens, such as ;What is the diet of the Pangerish?;所有测试者有90秒时间记住清单上的信息,然后进行大约15分钟不相关的测试以分散他们的注意力,最后才提问他们关于外星生物的问题,例如;潘格里氏主要吃什么?;and ;What colour eyes does the Norgletti have?; The upshot was that those ing the Arial font got the answers right 72.8% of the time, on average. Those forced to the more difficult fonts answered correctly 86.5% of the time.,;诺格莱蒂的眼睛是什么颜色?;等等。结果,读Arial字体的测试者平均有72.8%的正确率,而那些不得不费劲读;难看;字体的测试者正确率则达到86.5%。The question was, would this result translate from the controlled circumstances of the laboratory to the unruly environment of the classroom?问题来了,在实验室控制环境下得出的结果能否也适用于教室这种难以人为控制的环境呢?It did. When the researchers asked teachers to use the technique in high-school lessons on chemistry, physics, English and history, they got similar results.是肯定的。研究人员让教师们将这种方式应用到高中的化学、物理、英语和历史等课堂上,得到了类似的结果。The lesson, then, is to make text books harder to , not easier.那么结论就是,应该把书本印得难读一点,不要让它看着那么舒。 /201301/218185Why Mountains Stop Growing山脉为什么停止上升了If you live up in the mountains, understanding the continually shifting landscape can mean survival.如果你居住在山上,了解持续不断移动的风景就意味着生存。Mountains are continually shifting? Because of the erosion? Not just erosion.山脉是不断移动的吗?因为侵蚀?不仅仅是因为侵蚀。Erosion wears mountains down, but active mountain ranges are also continuously rising. And heres the interesting thing: despite this, once mountains reach a certain height, they achieve a state of equilibrium. So they rise but do not get any taller? Weird.侵蚀磨损山体使之高度下降。但是活跃的山脉也同样不断在上升。这有个有趣的现象:尽管山脉会不断上升,但上升到一定高度后,它们就达到一种平衡状态。所以它们上升但高度不会继续增加?真不可思议。You see, mountain ranges form in places where tectonic plates meet—those are the thick sheets of rigid rock that cover the earths surface. When one tectonic plate slides beneath the other, the parts of it that are scraped off pile up in buckling folds to form mountains.你看。山脉是在地壳板块交接的地方形成的,地壳板块是覆盖地球的坚硬岩石厚片。当某地壳板块俯冲到另一板块下面时,被擦掉的那部分岩石就以褶皱的形式堆积起来形成山脉。Of course, were talking geological time here, which is measured in tens of thousands of years. So one question geologists are investigating is which forces counteract the shifting and colliding of the tectonic plates and enable still-active mountain ranges to level off at a certain height.当然,我们现在谈论的是地史时期,是以数万年测量的。因此地质学家一直研究的一个问题就是哪些力量中和了板块的移动和碰撞,并使得仍活跃的山脉在某一特定高度呈平衡状态。And thats where erosion comes yet. Yes, but erosion is caused by many factors, like weather and rivers carving into the mountains. Also, as mountains get higher, they get steeper, and the greater the slope, the more sediment ends up sliding down into the oceans instead of accumulating on the mountains themselves.那就是侵蚀出现的原因了。是的,但是侵蚀是由多种原因引起的,比如天气和侵蚀山脉的河流。同样,山脉变高时,他们也变陡峭了,坡度越大,就会有越多的沉积物滑向海洋,而不是堆积在山脉上。So the big question is what role each of these factors plays in maintaining the height of mountain ranges. And thats where the debate comes in—and its a tough one.所以最大的问题就是这些因素在保持山脉高度时各自扮演着什么角色。而且那就是争论的源头——是个难题。 /201208/195184深圳医院激光祛斑哪个好

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