明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年11月21日 18:10:45
U.S. media reports say Iran has tested a new medium-range ballistic missile in defiance of two ed Nations Security Council resolutions.美国媒体报道说,伊朗无视联合国安理会两项决议的规定,对一种新型中程弹道导弹进行了试射。U.S. officials, speaking on the condition of anonymity, told media outlets the test was held November 21, and they say the missile traveled within Iranian territory.未透露姓名的美国官员对媒体说,这次导弹试射是在111日进行的,导弹试射范围在伊朗领土之内。Fox News cited intelligence sources as saying the test was held near Chabahar, a port city near Irans border with Pakistan.福克斯新闻网援引情报机构消息人士的话说,试射导弹的地点位于伊朗与巴基斯坦边界附近港口城市恰赫巴哈尔附近。In October, Iran tested a long-range ballistic missile, drawing condemnation from the U.N. Security Council. The Council is still debating how to respond to that test.伊朗今年10月曾试射一枚远程弹道导弹,招致联合国安理会的谴责。目前安理会仍在就如何对那次导弹试射做出反应进行辩论。Following that earlier missile test, the White House said there were ;strong indications; that Tehran ;did violate U.N. Security Council resolutions that pertain to Irans ballistic missile activities.; However, White House spokesman Josh Earnest said those violations are ;entirely separate; from the historic nuclear deal reached between Iran and world powers.伊朗10月试射导弹后,白宫曾表示,此举“强烈显示”德黑兰违反了联合国安理会有关伊朗弹道导弹活动的相关决议。但白宫发言人欧内斯特说,伊朗违反安理会决议试射弹道导弹的做法与德黑兰和世界六强国达成的历史性核协议“完全没有关联”。来 /201512/415492

Malaysia Airlines, the Asian carrier teetering on the edge of collapse after two disasters in four months, is to be taken private by Malaysia’s sovereign wealth fund in a rescue plan that will see the airline delisted and restructured in a bid to restore it to profitability.因四个月内发生两起空难而濒临破产的马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)将被收归国有。它会退市并重组,由马来西亚主权财富基金——国库控Khazanah)全面接管。Khazanah, which is the biggest shareholder in the airline with a 69 per cent stake, said on Friday in a statement seen by the Financial Times that it had submitted to Malaysia Airlinesboard a proposal to buy out minority shareholders in a “selective capital reduction and repayment exercise国库控股此前就是马航的最大股东,持有69%的股什?该基金在周五的一份声明中称,已向马航董事会提交一份提案,将买断马航少数股东手里的股份。Minority shareholders would receive Rm0.27 (Japan and South Korea have agreed to settle the issue of wartime “comfort womenin a landmark deal that could transform ties between the neighbours and reshape the diplomatic map of East Asia.日和韩国已就解决战时“慰安妇”问题达成协议,这一里程碑式的协议可能会彻底改变这两个邻国之间的关系、重塑东亚外交版图。Under the accord, Japan will pay .3m into a fund for surviving victims, based on “painful awarenessof its responsibilities for the system of forced prostitution during the second world war. The deal promises a “final and irrevocablesettlement to an issue that has scarred relations between the two main US allies in East Asia and provided an effective diplomatic tool to China.根据协议,日本将向一为依然健在的受害者设立的基金出资830万美元,理由是日方“痛苦地意识到”要为二战期间的强制卖淫制度负责。这一协议有可能“最终且不可逆转地”解决慰安妇问题。该问题为美国在东亚的两个主要盟友之间的关系留下了伤痕,并为中国提供了一个有效的外交工具。What are the regional implications?这份协议会给该地区带来哪些影响?Analysts say the deal could have a negative impact on Seoul’s relationship with Beijing, which has been strengthened by the visit by Park Geun-hye, South Korean president, to Beijing in September to attend a military parade marking the 70th anniversary of the end of the second world war.分析人士认为,该协议可能会对首尔与北京的关系产生负面影响。今月,韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)访问北京,出席了纪念二战结束70周年的阅兵式,巩固了韩中两国关系。Although Seoul has attempted to balance its relationships with China and the US, Ms Park’s attendance at the parade gave the impression that Seoul was shifting more towards Beijing for economic reasons.虽然首尔方面一直试图平衡韩中和韩美关系,但朴槿惠出席那次阅兵仪式给人的印象是,首尔方面正由于经济原因而更多地倒向北京方面。Even if the deal does not last, Japan may reap diplomatic benefits in the short term from Mr Abe’s willingness to compromise, undermining China’s efforts to portray Tokyo as unrepentant for its second world war atrocities.即使这份协议维持不下去,日本也仍可从安Abe)的妥协意愿中收获短期的外交利益,削弱了中国所持的、日本政府对二战暴行毫无悔意的论调。What are the benefits of rapprochement between Seoul and Tokyo?日韩和解有哪些好处?The deal is likely to help Seoul and Tokyo overcome their political differences and enhance their security alliance against North Korea. There are high expectations for stronger bilateral intelligence-sharing on North Korea, with the comfort women issue being the biggest stumbling block to improving bilateral relations.这份协议很可能会帮助韩日两国政府克政治分歧,强化它们防范朝鲜的安全同盟。人们对两国政府就朝鲜问题加强双边情报交流抱有很高的期待,但慰安妇问题一直是妨碍韩日双边关系改善的最大绊脚石。The two countries signed a trilateral intelligence-sharing agreement with Washington last December to better cope with North Korea’s military threats but the agreement allowed them to share intelligence via Washington only on Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile programmes. However, the recent thawing of relations could enable Seoul to gain better access to Japanese intelligence and boost its surveillance of North Korea.去年12月,韩日两国与美国政府签订了三边情报共享协议,以更好地应对朝鲜的军事威胁。但该协议只是让韩日两国能就朝鲜核计划与导弹计划经由华盛顿方面分享情报。而最近韩日两国关系的解冻,可能会让首尔方面能够更容易地获取日方的情报,加强对朝鲜的监视。Will this affect Korea’s hopes of joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership?这会影响韩国加入《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定TPP)的前景吗?Seoul expressed its desire to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations in November 2013, when talks were aly under way, and was told by Washington it would need to wait until these discussions had concluded.韩国政府0131月就表达了加入TPP谈判的愿望(当时相关谈判已在进行当中),而华盛顿方面告诉韩国政府,需要等到相关谈判完成后再讨论韩国加入的问题。A preliminary deal was reached among the 12 initial members in October, but South Korea’s entry to the trade pact will require consensus among the existing signatories another benefit to better relations with Tokyo.今年10月,TPP2个初始成员国达成了初步协议,而韩国要想加入该贸易协定将需要现有的签字国一致同意——这是与东京方面改善关系的另一个好处。What prompted South Korea to agree to the deal?是什么促使韩国同意这份协议?Seoul has been pressured by the US to improve relations with Tokyo. Better relations between the two countries are vital to Washington’s efforts to guard against China’s ascent in the region and to cope with North Korea’s increasing military threats.首尔方面一直受到美国的压力,要其改善与东京方面的关系。韩日关系的改善,对于美国防范中国在东亚崛起和对付朝鲜与日俱增的军事威胁来说意义重大。Seoul was also pressed by a lack of time as it is keen to resolve the issue while some of the former sex slaves are still alive, giving the South Korean government some leverage in negotiating with Japan.韩国政府面临的另一个压力是,时间不等人。它急于在一些前慰安妇仍健在时解决该问题,这些人的存在让它与日本谈判时能占据一些优势。What are the main differences between this deal and former agreements?这份协议与之前的协议有什么主要区别?The agreement follows a 1993 apology by Yohei Kono, Japanese chief cabinet secretary, which was accompanied by the establishment of a compensation fund. But that apology failed to accept full state responsibility, while the compensation came from private sources, with the government contributing only administrative costs.这份协议遵循993年日本内阁官房长官河野洋Yohei Kono)作出的道歉,当时还随之建立了一赔偿基金。但那次道歉没有认可慰安妇问题为完全的国家责任,赔偿金也来自民间渠道,日本政府仅负担管理成本。Tokyo still refuses to accept any legal liability on this subject, arguing that any such obligations related to its 35-year occupation of Korea were settled by a 1965 treaty normalising relations with Seoul in which Japan provided 0m in aid.日本政府仍拒绝在慰安妇问题上承担任何法律责任,辩称任何这类与日本对朝鲜半岛的35年占领有关的责任,都已在1965年与首尔方面签订的日韩邦交正常化条约中得到了结。根据该条约,日本向韩国提供亿美元援助。Under this week’s deal, the compensation payments will be funded by the state, unlike the earlier fund. However, it will be given as humanitarian aid, rather than legal reparations.根据本周的协议,赔偿金将由日本政府提供,这与之前的民间资金不同。不过,这笔钱将以人道主义援助、而不是法律赔偿名义提供。Furthermore, the text of Japan’s apology repeated the language of the Kono statement, admitting only “the involvement of the Japanese military authorities at that time rather than claiming responsibility.此外,日本此次道歉的内容重复了河野谈话的措辞,只承认“当时的日本军事当局有参与”,而没有宣称对此负责。Could this cause political problems at home for Ms Park?这会给朴槿惠在国内造成政治问题吗?Ms Park and her party could face a backlash in next April’s parliamentary elections. She has aly been criticised for following in the footsteps of her father Park Chung-hee, the former military dictator who served as an officer in the Japanese Imperial army. He signed the 1965 treaty by which South Korea normalised relations with Japan and renounced legal claims against the former colonial ruler.朴槿惠和她所在的政党在明月的议会选举中可能会面临强烈反对。她已然因追随其父朴正熙(Park Chung-hee)的脚步而遭到了批评。朴正熙是一名军事独裁者,曾任日本帝国陆军军官,正是他签署965年韩日邦交正常化条约,同意放弃对前殖民统治者日本的法律赔偿要求。But the political setback is unlikely to be fatal because the ruling party, which holds a majority in parliament, still enjoys high approval ratings while the main opposition party has been gripped by political infighting. Ms Park is barred by law from seeking another term in the next presidential election in 2017.不过,这一政治挫折不太可能造成致命后果,因为眼下在韩国议会中占据多数席位的执政党仍享有很高的持率,而主要反对党一直被政治内斗缠身。依照韩国法律,朴槿惠不能在2017年举行的下届总统选举中寻求连任。来 /201601/420004.08) a share, representing a 12.5 per cent premium to the closing price of Malaysia Airlines on Thursday, and a 29 per cent premium to the volume-weighted average of the shares over the past three months. Shares in Malaysia Airlines were suspended from trading on Friday.这些少数股东将收到每.27令吉(合0.08美元),这一价格相对马航股票周四收盘价有12.5%的溢价,相对其过去三个月成交量加权平均价的溢价则9%。马航股票已于周五停牌。The move comes two months after Khazanah said it had launched a “comprehensive reviewof Malaysia Airlines after the loss in early March of flight MH370, which remains missing after disappearing en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing.两个月前,国库控股曾表示,在马航MH370航班失联后已展开对马航的“全面评估”月初,马航MH370航班在吉隆坡到北京的航线上突然消失,目前仍未找到。The downing last month of a second Malaysia Airlines aircraft, flight MH17, over Ukraine added to the urgency of a rescue plan, marking an unprecedented two disasters to befall any commercial airline in such short time span.上个月,马航遭遇另一起空难:该公司旗下的MH17航班在飞经乌克兰时失事。在如此短的时间内,同一家航空公司经历两起空难,这在航空史上史无前例。For Malaysia, the need for a rescue is as much about restoring national pride as it is about ensuring the profitability of its flag carrier. Malaysia Airlines, one of the oldest airlines in Asia, for decades served as a symbol of the southeast Asian country’s move to industrialised status under former prime minister Mahathir Mohamad.对马来西亚政府来说,援救马航既是为了确保这家国家旗舰航空公司的盈利,也是出于恢复国民自豪感的需要。马航是亚洲历史最悠久的航空公司之一,几十年来一直被视为这个东南亚国家在前总理马哈蒂尔#8226;穆罕默德(Mahathir Mohamad)领导下推行工业化的象征。Malaysia’s economy is still dominated by dozens of “government linked corporationsthat benefit from links to the dominant ruling party, the ed Malays National Organisation (Umno), which has ruled Malaysia since independence in 1957.目前,马来西亚经济仍由数十家“与政府有联系的企业”主导。马来西亚执政党是马来民族统一机构(ed Malays National Organisation,简称“巫统,自1957年该国独立以来一直统治该囀?Khazanah said the proposed restructuring would require “all partiesto work on a complete overhaul of the carrier. “Nothing less will be required in order to revive our national airline to be profitable as a commercial entity and to serve its function as a critical national development entity,it said.国库控股表示,提议中的重组方案需要“各方”对马航开展一次全面整顿。该基金表示:“要想重振我们的国家级航空公司,令它成为一个能够盈利的商业机构,并发挥其国家发展关键机构的作用,以上措施缺一不可。”Malaysia Airlinestimeline of troubles马来西亚航空公司事故一览December 4 1977 Flight MH653, a domestic flight from Penang to Kuala Lumpur, was hijacked and crashed, killing 100 people19772- MH653航班:从滨城飞往吉隆坡的国内航班,飞机被劫持并失事,导致100人丧生。December 18 1983 Flight MH684, an Airbus A300, crashed at Kuala Lumpur airport. There were no fatalities among the 247 passengers and crew198328- MH684航班:这是一架空客A300飞机,坠毁在吉隆坡机场47名乘客和机组人员无人遇难。September 15 1995 Two crew members and 32 passengers were killed when flight MH2133 a Fokker F-50 turboprop aircraft overshot the runway at Tawau airport in Borneo, crashing into a nearby village and demolishing 53 houses19955- MH2133航班:这是一架福0(Fokker F-50)涡轮螺旋桨飞机,在婆罗洲斗湖机场冲出跑道,冲入附近村庄,毁坏53栋房屋,机上两名机组人员2名乘客丧生。March 15 2000 Flight MH85, an Airbus A330-300 from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, was damaged and later written off when the chemical oxalyl chloride leaked from canisters during unloading20005- MH85航班:是一架执飞吉隆坡至北京航线的空客A330-300飞机。当日飞机在卸货时,容器中的乙二酰氯泄露,导致机身严重受损并报废。March 8 2014 Flight MH370 disappeared en route from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing. The aircraft, a Boeing 777, was carrying 227 passengers and a dozen crew2014- MH370航班:在从吉隆坡飞往北京的途中失去联系。这是一架波77客机,载27名乘客和12名机组人员。March 24 2014 Flight MH066, from Kuala Lumpur to Seoul, made an emergency landing in Hong Kong when its electricity generator failed20144- MH066航班:在从吉隆坡飞往首尔的途中因发电机故障而紧急降落在香港。April 21 2014 A tyre burst during the takeoff of flight MH192 to Bangalore, prompting the aircraft, carrying 159 passengers and seven crew, to return to Kuala Lumpur20141- MH192航班:这架原定飞往班加罗尔(Bangalore)的飞机起飞时发生爆胎,不得不返回吉隆坡。机上载59名乘客和7名机组人员。July 17 2014 Flight MH17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur was allegedly shot down on the Russian-Ukraine border by a surface-to-air missile, killing all 298 passengers and crew20147- MH17航班:这架从阿姆斯特丹飞往吉隆坡的飞机在俄乌边境上空疑似被一枚地对空导弹击落,机98名乘客和机组人员全部丧生。来 /201408/320522

  Ever since the late Samuel Huntington predicted that international politics would be dominated by a “clash of civilisations his theory, first outlined in 1993[pub summer 1993 foreign affairs - was there an earlier iteration?], has found some of its keenest adherents among militant Islamists. The terrorists who inflicted mass murder on Paris are part of a movement that sees Islam and the west as locked in inevitable, mortal combat.已故的塞缪尔亨廷Samuel Huntington)曾预言,国际政治将由“文明的冲突”主导。该理论最早是993年提出的(发表在1993年夏天的《外交》杂Foreign Affairs)上)。自从提出以来,亨廷顿的理论在伊斯兰激进分子中找到了部分最忠实的拥趸。对巴黎实施大规模杀戮的恐怖分子,就从属于一项运动,该运动认为伊斯兰教和西方注定陷入不可避免的生死冲突。Leading western politicians, by contrast, have almost always rejected Huntington’s analysis. Even George W Bush said “there is no clash of civilisations And everyday life in multicultural western nations, most of which have large Muslim minorities, offers a daily refutation of the idea that different faiths and cultures cannot live and work together.相比之下,西方主要政客差不多总是在否认亨廷顿的分析。甚至连乔治圠布什(George W. Bush)都曾表示:“不存在文明的冲突。”文化多元的西方国家(它们多数都拥有规模庞大的穆斯林少数民族群体)的日常生活,每天都驳斥着认为不同信仰和文化无法共生、合作的观点。In the aftermath of the Paris attacks, that core idea needs to be reaffirmed. And yet a necessary restatement of liberal values should also not prevent a sober acknowledgment of some malign global trends. The fact is that hardline Islamism is on the rise even in some countries, such as Turkey, Malaysia and Bangladesh, previously regarded as models of moderate Muslim societies. At the same time, the expression of anti-Muslim prejudice is entering the political mainstream in the US, Europe and in India.在巴黎发生袭击事件之后,这一核心理念必须加以重申。然而,对自由价值观的必要重申,也不应阻止人们清醒地认识部分有害的全球趋势。事实上,强硬派伊斯兰主义正在崛起——即使在土耳其、马来西亚和孟加拉国等部分此前被视为温和穆斯林社会典范的国家也是如此。与此同时,带有反穆斯林偏见的言论也正在进入美国、欧洲和印度的主流政治。Taken together, these developments are narrowing the space for those who want to push back against the narrative of a “clash of civilisations综合而言,对于那些想要反驳“文明的冲突”说法的人来说,这些变化正在压缩他们的空间。Terrorist attacks, such as those in Paris, promote tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims as they are intended to. But there are also longer-term trends at work that are driving radicalisation. One of the most pernicious is the way in which the Gulf states, in particular Saudi Arabia, have used oil money to sp intolerant forms of Islam into the rest of the Muslim world.类似巴黎那样的恐怖主义袭击,加剧了穆斯林和非穆斯林之间的紧张关系——而这正是这些袭击的用意所在。不过,还有一些更长期的趋势在起作用,在推动世界的激进化。其中一个最具破坏性的趋势,就是海湾国家(尤其是沙特阿拉伯)利用石油资金,向穆斯林世界的其他地区传播不包容的伊斯兰教形式。The effects are now visible in Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Europe. Malaysia has long been held up as an example of a successful and prosperous, multicultural nation with a Muslim-Malay majority and a large ethnic-Chinese minority. But things are changing. Bilahari Kausikan, a former head of the foreign ministry in neighbouring Singapore, notes a “significant and continuing narrowing of the political and social space for non-Muslimsin Malaysia. He adds: “Arab influences from the Middle East have for several decades steadily eroded the Malay variant of Islam... it with a more austere and exclusive interpretation.The corruption scandal that is currently undermining the government of Prime Minister Najib Razak has increased communal tensions, as the Malaysian government has fallen back on Muslim identity politics to rally support. One junior government minister even recently accused the opposition of being part of a global, Jewish conspiracy against Malaysia.这种趋势的影响目前在东南亚、印度次大陆、非洲和欧洲都可以看到。马来西亚长期被树立为成功而繁荣的多元化国家典范,不仅有占人口多数的穆斯林马来人,还有庞大的华裔少数民族。然而,事情正在发生变化。曾任马来西亚邻国新加坡外交部常任秘书的比拉哈里考西Bilahari Kausikan)指出,马来西亚“非穆斯林的政治和社会空间正遭遇显著而持续性的压缩”。他补充说:“几十年来,来自中东的阿拉伯的影响一直在稳步侵蚀着马来西亚的伊斯兰教……用更严厉、更排他的解释取而代之。”目前,腐败丑闻正在削弱马来西亚总理纳吉布拉扎克(Najib Razak)政府的影响力,加剧了马来西亚族群间的紧张。与此同时,马来西亚政府已开始借助穆斯林身份政治提升持率。最近,一名低级的政府部长甚至还曾指责反对党是针对马来西亚的全球性犹太阴谋的一部分。In Bangladesh, a Muslim country with a secular constitution, radical Islamists have been responsible for murders of intellectuals, bloggers and publishers, over the past year. There has also been a rise in attacks on Christians, Hindus and Shia Muslims. Much of this violence has been perpetrated by Isis or al-Qaeda. But, as in Malaysia, the rise of radical Islam seems to have been heavily influenced by the Gulf states through the funding of education and the connections forged by migrant workers.孟加拉国是一个拥有世俗化宪法的穆斯林国家。在孟加拉国,激进的伊斯兰主义者要为过去一年里发生的多起针对知识分子、客作者和出版界人士的谋杀负责。此外,针对基督教徒、印度教徒和什叶派(Shia)穆斯林的攻击也已增加。大量此种暴行都是“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)或基地组al-Qaeda)犯下的。不过,和马来西亚类似,激进伊斯兰教的崛起似乎在很大程度上受到了海湾国家的影响——这种影响是通过教育资助和外来劳动者打造的人脉关系施加的。For many in the west, Turkey has long been the best example of a majority-Muslim country that is also a successful secular democracy. But in the era of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, religion has become much more central to the country’s politics and identity. Mr Erdogan has been labelled as “mildly Islamistby The Economist and others. But there was nothing mild about his statement in 2014 that westerners “look like friends, but they want us dead, they like seeing our children die对西方许多人来说,长期以来土耳其一直是一个最佳典范:这里穆斯林占人口多数,同时也是个成功的世俗化民主国家。然而,在土耳其总统雷杰普吠伊普埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)的时代,宗教在土耳其政治和身份认同中的重要性已大大提高。埃尔多安已被《经济学人The Economist)和其他媒体打上了“温和伊斯兰主义者”的标签。但是,他在2014年的讲话可一点也不温和,他说,西方人“虽然看起来像朋友,实际上他们却希望我们灭亡,他们喜欢看着我们的孩子死去”。While India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, has not said anything this inflammatory about Muslims, he has long been accused of tolerating anti-Islamic prejudice and violence. During his first months in office, Mr Modi reassured some critics by concentrating on economic reform. But in recent months, members of his Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party have ramped up anti-secular and anti-Muslim rhetoric with the lynching of a Muslim man, accused of eating beef, making national headlines.尽管印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)并未说过关于穆斯林的这么煽动性的话,长期以来他一直被指责纵容反伊斯兰的偏见和暴力活动。在上任的头几个月,莫迪通过将注意力集中于经济改革打消了部分批评人士的疑虑。然而最近几个月,莫迪领导的印度教民族主义政党人民党(Bharatiya Janata Party)的成员,加大了反世俗化和反穆斯林的言论。一位被控食用牛肉的穆斯林男子被私刑处死的消息,成为印度的头条新闻。In Europe, even before the Paris attacks, the migrant crisis had helped to fuel the rise of anti-Muslim parties and social movements. As Germany has opened its doors to refugees from the Middle East, violent attacks on migrant hostels have risen. In France, it is widely expected the far-right National Front will make significant gains in next month’s regional elections.在欧洲,在巴黎的袭击事件之前,难民危机就已助长了反穆斯林党派和社会运动的兴起。在德国向来自中东的难民打开大门之际,对难民收容所的暴力袭击活动也已增加。在法国,人们普遍预期极右翼国民阵线(National Front)在下个月的大区选举中将大幅领先 /201511/411312


  The Republican presidential campaign entered a new week with some memorable moments. Frontrunner Donald Trump revealed his tax plan on Monday in New York while rival Carly Fiorina barely escaped a falling curtain wall at an event in San Antonio.美国共和党总统竞选活动进入新的一周,出现了一些难忘时刻。领先者川普星期一在纽约公布了他的税务计划,而对手卡莉·费奥丽娜在圣·安东尼奥一次活动中,险些被倒塌的大幕砸到。Trump promised to cut income taxes for middle-class as well as wealthy Americans, while eliminating them altogether for people making less than ,000 a year. He also said he would slash corporate taxes by half and reduce taxes for businesses, both to help create new jobs. He said he would eliminate exemptions and close tax loopholes for the rich.川普承诺为中产阶级和美国富人减税,对年收入不到两万五千美元的人免税。川普还表示,将把大公司税收减半,并为小企业减税,二者均可创造新就业。Trump said: ;We are lowering taxes very substantially, we are simplifying and we are getting rid of deductions that are actually obsolete.;川普表示,将取消富人的税务减免,堵塞税务漏洞。他说:“我们将切实降低税收,简化并取消那些实际上已过时的减税项目。”Trumps Republican rivals did not have comments. Senator Marco Rubio was quite emphatic about it during a radio interview. He said: ;I am not interested in the back and forth to be a member or part of his freak show.;川普的共和党对手对此没有置评。参议员卢比奥在电台采访中以强烈口气说:“我没有兴趣和他你来我往,出演或加入他的怪人秀。”Democratic Party presidential frontrunner Hillary Clinton slammed Trumps proposal, saying the rich would benefit most from it. But both she and Trump have criticized the loopholes that help speculators, such as hedge funders, avoid taxes.领先的民主党总统参选人希拉釷克林顿猛烈抨击川普的主张,称富人是主要受益者。不过,克林顿和川普都批评那些有利于投机者的税务漏洞,例如,对冲基金项目和避税现象等。Trump was well received at a meeting with Christian and Jewish clergy Monday in his Trump Tower offices.川普星期一在川普大厦其本人办公室内与基督教和犹太教领袖会谈,而且反应不错。Vox Pop, Pastor, said: ;He wasnt trying to pander to us to gain our support. He was speaking to us as one of us.;牧师沃克斯·帕普说:“他没有为了赢得持而迎合我们,他同我们平等交谈。”But the polls show the billionaires Republican rivals catching up to him, with former surgeon Ben Carson only one point behind in opinion surveys.不过,民调显示,这位亿万富翁的共和党竞争对手们正在急起直追,前外科医生本·卡森在民调中只落后川普一个百分点。Republican Presidential Candidate, Ben Carson said: ;It kind of reflects what weve been seeing out on the road - just tremendous crowds but enormous enthusiasm.;共和党总统候选人本·卡森说:“这部分反应了我们在竞选途中所看到的,人山人海,热情高涨。”Former business executive Carly Fiorina had a memorable moment during her campaign Monday when she barely escaped a heavy curtain wall crashing onto the stage where she spoke.前企业高管卡莉·费奥丽娜星期一竞选时遇到惊险一刻,她在讲话时险些被一面倒向舞台的沉甸甸的大幕砸到。费奥丽娜说:“大家没有事吧?有人受伤吗?”Carly Fiorina said: ;Is everybody all right? Was anybody hurt?; Fiorina even joked that the fall could have been arranged by Trump or Clinton.费奥丽娜甚至玩笑地说,大幕压顶可能是川普或克林顿安排的。来 /201510/402457

  Americans were exposed to the terror of mass gun violence again on Wednesday, this time at a social services center in San Bernardino, California. The initial reports revealed a distressingly familiar pattern: A heavily armed active shooter or shooters, at least 14 people dead and more injured, harrowing images of law enforcement and first responders rushing to get the area under control, and stunned people -- some of them wounded and bleeding -- streaming out of the facility.周三,美国再次遭受大规模暴力,地点位于加州圣伯纳迪诺社会务中心。最初的报告揭示了一个熟悉的悲惨模式:一个或几个武装手,至4人死伤,悲惨的执法画面,首批应对人员控制局面,惊愕的人群——其中有人受伤流血——涌出该建筑。It seems like weve seen this time and time again. But mass shootings occur even more frequently than many people realize, because most of them dont make the national news.我们好像对这个场景见过许多次了。但大规模击案发生的比人们所知的更为频繁,因为多数击案不会成为全国新闻。Over on Reddit, the Guns Are Cool community has compiled a list of every US mass shooting this year. According to their count, Wednesdays burst of violence was the 355th this year.Reddit网“酷”栏目统计了今年发生的击案。据统计,周三暴力案件是今年55起。The moderators of the subreddit -- which is not actually of the belief that guns are cool -- use a broad definition of mass shooting, listing every event in which ;four or more people [including the shooter] are shot in a spree.; Under this definition, a shooting that wounds at least four people, but doesnt kill them, is still a mass shooting. That means the mass shooting in San Bernardino wasnt even the first one on Wednesday -- one woman was killed and three people were injured in an early morning shooting in Savannah, Georgia.该版版主——他并不相信真的很酷——给大型击案做了一个宽泛的定义,“四人及四人以上(包括手)中”的击事件。根据这一定义,击导致至少四人受伤未危及生命也算是大规模击案。这就意味着发生在加州圣贝纳迪诺的案件并非周三唯一一起——当天早晨,佐治亚州萨凡纳市一名妇女遭杀,三人受伤。The number and frequency of mass shootings in the US has become an increasingly heated point of debate over the past few years. The FBI doesnt have an official definition of mass shooting, and there are disagreements over how to count the incidents.过去几年,大规模击案的发生频率和伤亡人数日益成为讨论的焦点。联邦调查局(FBI)对大规模击案没有官方定义。事件的统计方法也有争议。Mother Jones, for example, uses a much narrower definition of of this form of gun violence. In its ;Guide to Mass Shootings in America,; the publication defines a mass shooting as a single episode carried out by a single shooter in a single location, usually a public place, that kills at least four people. Mother Jones also excludes most crimes that are primarily related to gang activity, armed robbery or domestic violence. Using this definition, there have been 72 mass shootings since 1982, the most recent at Umpqua Community College, in Roseburg, Oregon, in October.例如,琼斯妈妈对此类暴力的定义就具体很多。在《美国群众击事件指南》将群众击事件定义为“由一名手在同一地点(一般为公共场合)至少杀四人的事件”。琼斯妈妈还把帮派活动、持抢劫或家庭暴力等多数犯罪排除在外。根据此定义,自1982年以来共发生72起大规模击案。最近的一次是10月份发生在俄勒冈州的乌姆普夸社区大学。来 /201512/413692

  Amid the horror and devastation around Nepal’s Katmandu Valley after Saturday’s 7.8-magnitude earthquake, seismologists and earthquake-focused engineers are remarking on how low the death counts are particularly in the capital compared to many predictions for the densely populated, deeply impoverished and ill-prepared region.在尼泊尔加德满都谷地周六遭遇7.8级地震的恐慌与浩劫中,地震学家和地震方向的工程师们却一直在感叹死亡人数之少,尤其是首都的死亡人数。相对于诸多预估数据,这片人口密集、身陷赤贫又毫无准备的土地上,实际的遇难者要少得多。And this assessment presumes that fatalities will climb much higher than the 4000 counted so far. But to reach even the low end of past estimates, the death toll would have to rise enormously.这种说法所预计的死亡人数要比现在的4000多人高出很多。但即使是按照以往预估的最低值来算,现在的死亡人数也低得多。In 2012, for example, this was the warning for the Katmandu Valley from the ed Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction:例如012年联合国减灾办公ed Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction)就曾向加德满都谷地发出如下提醒:Conservative estimates are that the next big earthquake could result in 100,000 dead, 200,000 injured and one to two million people displaced保守估计,下一场大地震将造成10万人遇难0万人受伤00万至200万人无家可归。Why the difference? For one thing, it appears that, at least for the capital, this earthquake was not nearly a worst case.实际状况为何与此相去甚远?一方面,至少以首都的情况来看,这并非最严重的一次地震。If the great 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake occurred with today’s population and structures, vastly higher losses would occur, as GeoHazards International and Nepal’s National Society for Earthquake Technology found in a 1999 analysis.国际地质灾害组织(GeoHazards International)与尼泊尔国家地震技术科学会(Nepals National Society for Earthquake Technology)1999年发布分析报告称,如934年的比哈尼泊尔地Bihar-Nepal earthquake)重演,以如今的人口规模和结构来看,死亡人数将大幅上升。Susan E. Hough, a ed States Geological Survey seismologist, sent these thoughts on Sunday:美国地质调查局的地震学家苏珊·E·哈夫(Susan E. Hough)周日时发表了如下观点:As tragic as the losses are, it seems clear the city was not flattened. I’ve been struck by damage photos not only the damage they show, but the damage they don’t show to apparently intact buildings in the background. This seems to go hand-in-hand with the ShakeMap, which is poorly constrained but shows intensities 7-8 in the near-field, not 9-10.尽管伤亡人数令人悲叹,但很明显这座城市并没有被夷为平地。看到受灾地照片我很震惊——不仅是被它们所呈现的受灾状况震惊,更被它们所无意呈现的,背景里完好无损的建筑所震惊。这一切似乎和缺乏约束的地震动预测ShakeMap)相吻合,显示-8级烈度的近场地震,而非9-10级。I’m thinking it will be an interesting part of the earthquake story, understanding the ground motions in the near field. There should be at least some strong motion data from Katmandu, and maybe elsewhere. It kills me there isn’t more: I tried to put together a proposal a few years ago to install more dense low-cost accelerometers in the valley, working with NSET [Nepal’s National Society for Earthquake Technology] and Tribuvan University. I was involved with a proposal that went in a year or so ago I do think preparedness efforts made a difference. Amod Dixit and his team at NSET have worked tirelessly on outreach, education, and training.我想这会成为地震史上对近场地动认知的有趣一幕。加德满都应该至少有一些强烈地动的数据,也许其他地方也有。但只有这些,这让我很烦恼:我试图整合几年前和尼泊尔国家地震技术科学会(NSET)和特里万布大Tribuvan University)合作的一个在谷地更密集地安装低成本测震仪的提案。我还参与了一年多前的一个提案……我认为事先准备是有效可靠的。阿莫德·迪克斯特(Amod Dixit)和他在尼泊尔国家地震技术科学会的团队一直孜孜不倦地在范围、教育和训练方面探索研究。The population was not ignorant. Fatalism arises when problems are so far outside people’s control that they can’t do anything about it or rather, they think they can’t do anything about it.人们并非完全一无所知。但当问题超出可控范围,人们无力回天的时候,宿命论就会占上风——或者说,人们自以为无力回天的时候。And yes that paragraph is contradictory. The thing is, the overall problem was far outside anyone’s control but it is still possible to make some difference.好吧,上一段的确很矛盾。关键在于,当整体问题完全失控的时候,我们依然是可以做出些改变的。Port-au-Prince is mostly the same story: big problems, big earthquakes, few resources. By my calculation, ground motions in Port-au-Prince were not intensity 9-10, but maybe 6-8. The story again was vulnerability.太子港的情况也差不多:问题棘手,地震严重,资源稀缺。据我个人计算,太子港地动烈度并-10级,可能-8级。那一次的问题,也是抗震能力。I also asked her if there’s any concern about this being misperceived as the worst that could happen.我还问了她此次地震误解为最严重的一次是否有什么影响。Could something bigger happen in Nepal? Sure.尼泊尔会发生更严重的地震吗?当然有可胀?There’s the megathrust segment immediately west of this earthquake, which we believe last broke in 1505. It’s the usual story, though: we don’t know when. The odds of subsequent big earthquakes always go up after a major earthquake. Ironically, the most dangerous time, statistically, is always just after a major earthquake has happened. But still it’s a low probability. We e a 1-in-20 chance that something bigger will happen within 3 days, but the odds drop quickly with each passing hour. By this time [Sunday], the odds are more like 1-in-100. And the odds of an earthquake much larger than 7.8 are much lower still. It is possible, maybe even inevitable, that both Port-au-Prince and Nepal will be hit with stronger ground motions than what they’ve seen in recent years.在地震发生地以西不远处就有一个大地震破裂段,据信,其上次破裂是在1505年。但通常情况是这样的:我们不知道它何时会破裂。随后发生大地震的几率总是在一次严重地震发生后攀升。讽刺的是,数据表明,最危险的时候,总是在一次严重地震刚刚发生之后。但是概率还是很低的。一场更大的地震将在3日内发生的可能,我们在此引用10这样一个几率,但是这种几率是逐小时迅速下降的。到现在(周日),这个几率大概是100。且发生一次远远强.8级的地震的几率比这还要低得多。太子港和尼泊尔都遭遇比近年来两地所经受过的更为强烈的地震,是可能的,甚至是不可避免的。So the city of Katmandu, while still reeling, has clearly been spared what could have been a far higher death count given rapid urbanization in recent years (driven in part as people fled political turmoil in the hinterlands), poor quality of construction, lack of emergency services and other glaring issues.所以加德满都这座城市——尽管其还在经受重重余震——鉴于其近年来迅猛的城市化进程(部分是人们逃离内陆政治动荡的结果)、差劲的建筑质量、应急务的缺失及其他显而易见的问题,显然幸运地避免了更惨重的伤亡。The focus at the moment should be supporting rescue and relief efforts. But it’s also vital for Nepal and international aid agencies and organizations to redouble efforts to rebuild with the worse in mind.此刻的重点应该是持救援救灾工作。但对尼泊尔和国际援助机构和组织来说,带着最糟糕的预设去加倍为重建努力至关重要。The geological forces creating the earthquake hazard in Nepal and throughout the region are not abating, as Kenneth Chang wrote.正如肯尼斯·张(Kenneth Chang,音译)所写道的,在尼泊尔及整个周边地区造成地震灾害的地质营力(指引起地质作用的自然力——编注)并未减弱。Rural Devastation满目疮痍的乡村Of course the other factor behind the low death counts so far is that estimates of deaths have mainly come from the capital and larger towns in the affected region, while small communities have been largely cut off.当然,低死亡人数背后的另一个因素,是对于死亡人数的估计主要来自于首都和受灾地区的其他较大城镇,但小村镇大多还处于人员无法进入的状态。Several earthquake analysts focused on the Himalayas said they would be surprised if the death toll ended up lower than 10,000 once rural towns and villages, hammered by landslides and building collapses, finish assessing losses. It could easily end up far higher.关注喜马拉雅山的几位地震分析人士说,如果在遭受了山体滑坡、建筑倒塌的农村乡镇和村庄完成伤亡评估后,死亡人数最终还低于1万人,他们将感到惊讶。死亡人数很容易就会攀升至比这高得多的水平。Scan Facebook or Twitter using these hashtags for affected villages to get the idea: #Sindhupalchowk #Gorkha #Nuwakot #Rasuwa #Dhading.用这些标签在Facebook或Twitter上检索信息,来了解受灾村庄的情况吧:#Sindhupalchowk #Gorkha #Nuwakot #Rasuwa #Dhading。(震前震后对比图见图一)There has been a steady flood of appeals for help on social media, speaking of enormous, as-yet-uncounted losses. Here’s one, from the Facebook page of The Darjeeling Chronicle:在社交媒体上,一直不断出现着如潮涌般的求助信息,它们都是关于巨大的、到目前为止还未被统计过的伤亡损失。这里是来自《大吉岭纪事报The Darjeeling Chronicle)Facebook页面的求助信息(见图二)。Here’s a final thought from Thomas Parsons, also of the Geological Survey:这是地质调查局的托马斯·帕森Thomas Parsons)的一个最后总结:Unfortunately the tolls of this earthquake will likely rise with time as news from the more remote areas emerges. The intensity maps I’ve seen for Nepal are comparable to the M7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake (similar Himalayan foothills setting) where 80,000+ people perished. I don’t know anything about the population density in the strongest shaking zone in Nepal; hopefully it is lower than in the Pakistan case and construction standards are better (that’s just a hope, I don’t know).很不幸,这场地震的死亡人数将很可能会随着来自更偏远地区的新闻报道渐渐出现而升高。我所见到的尼泊尔的强度分布图,堪005年克什米尔那场7.6级地震(类似的喜马拉雅山脚下环境),万人在那场地震中丧生。我完全不知道尼泊尔地震最强烈的那个区域的人口密度是多少;希望它比巴基斯坦那个地震发生地的密度低、建筑标准更高(这只是一个希望,我不知道这些信息)。However, it appears that, other than some localized Katmandu basin effects, the city may have been spared from the most intense shaking. Had the earthquake been centered more to the east, this could have been substantially worse. In addition to possibly delayed reporting, we also have to worry about large aftershocks nearer to Katmandu (like the Darfield-Christchurch New Zealand example). Sometimes these can be delayed long enough to make improvements. For example, there were 5 years separating the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan China and 2013 M6.6 Lushan earthquakes.然而,看起来,除了一些局部的加德满都盆地效应,这座城市可能躲过了最强烈的震动。要是震中往东移动一些,情况本可能糟糕得多。除了可能有延迟的报道,我们还应该担心更靠近加德满都的大型余震(像新西兰达菲尔德[Darfield]-基督城的那个例子)。有时,余震会迟至已有足够时间改善情况之后才发生。比如,中国汶川2008年的7.9级地震,与芦013年的6.6级地震之间相隔了五年。To get a sense (a chilling sense) of how popluation patterns have amplified exposure to earthquake hazards in the region, have a look at this map from GeoHazards International (a high-resolution version is here, part of a broader analysis), which shows the quake zone with population densities superimposed:图三可以帮助你理解(惊恐地理解)区域内的人口模式是如何扩大地震危害的。这张地图来自地质国际(大图请点击这里)同时标明了震区和人口密度:If you missed it, here’s my initial post, shortly after the quake struck, noting that the entire Himalayan region faces an extraordinary danger from the conjunction of relentless tectonic activity, rapid population growth and vulnerable construction.如果你没有看到,这是我最初的文章,震后不久,我注意到整个喜马拉雅地区面临着由于版块不断运动、人口急剧增长及构造脆弱造成的巨大危险。来 /201504/372642

  In her first TV interview in a decade, Monica Lewinsky has said she ended up feeling like ;the most humiliated woman in the worldafter her affair with Bill Clinton. The former White House intern says was unfairly presented as a bimbo and subject to violation after violation by the media.莫尼卡·莱温斯基沉默十余载后首次接受电视采访。她说,自她与比尔·克林顿的丑闻曝光之后,她感到自己变成了“世界上最受到侮辱的女人。”这位前白宫见习生说,她曾被媒体描绘成一个坏女人,受到媒体接连不断的侮辱,这是不公正的。Miss Lewinsky, a former White House intern whose relationship with Mr Clinton in the 1990s nearly brought down his presidency, said she had been “a virgin to humiliationbefore the scandal broke and described the media coverage that followed as a “violation上世纪九十年代,前白宫见习生莱温斯基与克林顿的丑闻事件几乎差点葬送了克林顿的总统生涯。莱温斯基说,当丑闻曝光时,她”生平头一次受到那样的羞辱”,她认为媒体的相关报道是对她本人的“侮辱”;I was the most humiliated woman in the world,; she said, according to a preview of the National Geographic interview shown on Tuesday. ;To be called stupid and a bimbo, and ditzy and to be taken out of context, it was excruciating.;“我是世界上最受侮辱的女人。”在周二国家地理频道试映的采访中,她说道,“被媒体称作蠢货,坏女人,秀逗,被妄加菲薄。这对我造成了很大的伤害。”The affair led to Clinton being impeached by the House of Representatives in 1999. The Senate acquitted him and Mr Clinton completed his second term in 2001.1999年,这起丑闻事件导致克林顿受到众议院的弹劾001年,参议院宣布判处克林顿无罪,克林顿得以度过自己的第二个总统任期。She recalled the day in 1998 when special prosecutor Kenneth Starr issued a report on the scandal, including vivid details about her affair with Mr Clinton, as one of the worst in her life.她还记得998年,特别检察官肯尼斯·史塔发布了一份关于这起丑闻事件的报告,其中生动详细的描绘了她与克林顿丑闻事件的细节。她说,这是她一生中最可怕的一天。Mrs Clinton spoke on the subject of the affair last month, saying she had not given Miss Lewinsky much thought but wished her every luck.The former Secretary of State added: I think everybody needs to look to the future.”就在上月,克林顿夫人曾谈到过丑闻事件,称她并未曾过多的想到过莱温斯基,但是仍祝她一切顺利。这位前国务卿还补充说:“我觉得每个人都应该向前看。”来 /201407/310197

  Five big Chinese cities rank among the priciest housing markets in the world, surpassing notoriously expensive cities like Tokyo, London and New York, based on calculations by the International Monetary Fund. In fact, seven out of 10 of the worlds least affordable markets--Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Chongqing--are now in China。根据货币基金组IMF)发布的数据显示,五大中国城市在世界最昂贵的房地产市场中名列前茅,甚至超过了众所周知的昂贵城市东京、伦敦和纽约,事实上,世界上十大贵的让人难以承受的房地产市场中,有七个都是中国的城市——北京、上海、深圳、香港、天津、广州和重庆。Note that that the price-to-wage ratio, which measures median housing prices in a given city against median disposable incomes, reflects affordability rather than absolute property value. This means the mid-range price of an apartment in New York is 6.2 times more than what a typical family makes in a year. By comparison, it would take nearly a quarter-century of earnings to buy a pad in Beijings capital outright。房价和工资比是某一城市的平均房价与平均可配收入的比值,它反映了人们是否能承受这种房价而不仅仅是房产的绝对价值。这也意味着,纽约一间中等价格的公寓是一个普通家庭一年收入的6.2倍多,而要想在北京的中心城区买间房子要花去一个中国家庭近25年的收入。Residential property is a big mess for the Chinese government--and its not going away. Last month, prices on new homes leapt 7.4% in June 2012--the biggest uptick since last December。居民住宅问题是中国政府面临的一个大问题——而且这个问题还将一直存在月,新房价格比去年同期增长了7.4%,这是自去年12月以来出现的最快增长。In short, policies to curb housing inflation arent working. Thats worrying news for the government; housing prices are a major source of public resentment. The danger isnt just the threat of popular unrest, though: Its that soaring property prices make people feel less wealthy and less inclined to consume. And thats exactly what the government needs them to do in order to wean the economy off its dependency on exports and credit-driven investment。简言之,抑制房价的政策没有奏效。这是一个令政府焦虑的消息;房价是引发民众不满的主要原因之一。但危险并不仅仅是民众骚乱的威胁:快速上涨的房价让人们感觉财富减少,也就更不愿意消费。而消费正是政府鼓励民众去做的,这样才能改变中国经济对出口和信贷投资的依赖。Sure, the announcement over the weekend that the government will stop evaluating party officials solely on the basis of their contribution to growing GDP. If theyre off the hook for hitting targets, it could make them less reliant on land parcel sales--the prices of which have been rising--to fund their budgets。当然,中国政府周末时已表示,不再将GDP作为衡量地方官员政绩的唯一指标。如果地方官员能够从“唯GDP是从中解脱出来,他们便会较少地依赖土地销售来资助预算,而中国的高房价正来源于这种依赖。来 /201508/390337。

  SPOKANE, Wash. When she moved into her uncles basement in the largely white town of Coeur dAlene, Idaho, in 2004, Rachel A. Dolezal was still blond and pale-skinned and identified herself as a white woman one who had left a black husband and had a biracial child.华盛顿州斯波坎市—004年,蕾切尔·A·多尔扎尔(Rachel A. Dolezal)搬进爱达荷州科达伦镇的叔叔家,住在他的地下室里。科达伦镇的居民大部分都是白人,当时的蕾切尔还是白肤金发。她也自称是个白人,和黑人丈夫离了婚,带着一个混血孩子来到这里。But within a few years, her aly deep commitment to black causes and culture intensified. Co-workers and relatives began hearing talk that her background was mixed-race and even that she had called herself black.但在短短几年中,她之前就对黑人的理想与文化产生的强烈认同又有所深化。同事和亲戚开始听到她说,自己来自混血背景,甚至就是黑人。Many of them questioned the way she described herself, while others accepted it at face value. No one seems to have made an issue of it, but most people saw in her a force of personality that made her a strong and passionate advocate at the Human Rights Education Institute in Coeur dAlene, where she began working soon afterward.不少人曾对她形容自己的方式提出质疑,其他人则简单接受了这一点。但似乎没人把它当成一件大事,他们大多都在她身上感受到一种人格力量,这种力量使她成了科达伦人权教育协Human Rights Education Institute)里一名坚定而富有的倡导者。她在改变身份后没多久就开始在这里工作。“Its really impressive what she accomplished, bringing a lot of energy to these places,her uncle, Daniel A. Dolezal, recalled in a telephone interview on Tuesday, speaking of the human rights group as well as the NAACP chapter in Spokane, which she later rose to lead. He recalled her journey from being a down-on-her-luck single mother who took part-time teaching jobs, tried to sell her artwork, and worked in the camera store he owns in Coeur dAlene, in a part of the Idaho panhandle that was once the headquarters of Aryan Nations, the white supremacist group.“她的成就令人赞叹,给这些地方带来很多活力,”她的叔叔丹尼尔·A·多尔扎尔(Daniel A. Dolezal)在周二进行的电话采访中回忆到,他说到了上述人权机构和全国有色人种协进NAACP)在斯波坎市的分,多尔扎尔最终成了后者的负责人。他回忆了她一路走来的旅程,最初是一个不走运的单身母亲,兼职做着教师工作,后来试着出售自己创作的艺术品,并在他开在科达伦镇上的照相机商店里打工。当地属于爱达荷州走廊的一部分,一度曾是白人至上主义组织雅利安民族(Aryan Nations)的总部所在地。So when Dolezal (pronounced DOLE-uh-zhal) went on national televisionon Tuesdayfor the first time since she became the subject of a raging debate about racial identity and fabrication, it was no surprise that while she cannot claim a hint of black ancestry, she refused to concede that she had misled anyone. “I identify as black,she said with a smile.自多尔扎尔成为一场有关种族认同和身份造假的热烈争论的对象以来,她在周二首次出现在全国性的电视节目上。一点也不令人诧异的是,尽管无法明自己有丝毫的黑人血统,她还是拒绝让步和承认自己之前误导了任何人。“我觉得自己是黑人,”她微笑着说。She would not backpedal, and “I guarantee you she never will,said her uncle, who took her in more than a decade ago as her marriage crumbled. “Thats part of her persona, never backing down always forward, totally sure of herself.”她不会改变这种说法,而且“我向你保她永远也不会,”十多年前在她婚姻破裂时收留了她的叔叔说。“这就是她,永远不会后退,永远向前,百分百自信。”On Tuesday, Matt Lauer ofNs “Todayshowasked her, “When did you start deceiving people?But Dolezal, who stepped downon Mondayas president of the Spokane NAACP chapter, pushed back.本周二,N电视台的马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)在他主持的《今日Today)节目中问她,“你是从什么时候开始骗人的?”周一刚刚卸任NAACP斯波坎市分负责人一职的她就此做出了强烈回应。“I do take exception to that because its a little more complex than me identifying as black, or answering a question of, `Are you black or white? she said. Over the course of the day, she also described herself as “transracialand said: “Well, I definitely am not white.Nothing about being white describes who I am.”“我反对你这种说法,因为这可比称自己是黑人或回答‘你是黑人还是白人’的问题复杂一些,”多尔扎尔说。在这一天当中,她还称自己“跨种族”,她说:“好吧,我绝对不是白人。有关白人的描绘完全不适用于我。”Her story has set off a national debate about the very meaning of racial identity, with some people applauding her message and goals and others deploring her methods and actions. It was one thing for Dolezal to identify with, appreciate and even partake in black culture, some critics said, but it was another thing for her to try to become black, going so far as to change her physical appearance.她的故事在全美国引发了有关种族身份的争论,一些人赞同她所传达的信息和目标,其他人则谴责她的方式和行为。一些批评人士称,对于多尔扎尔来说,认同、欣赏甚至分享黑人文化是一件事,但试图成为黑人是另一件事,她甚至改变了自己的外貌。“It taps into all of these issues around blackface and wearing blackness and that whole cultural legacy, which makes it that much more vile,said Baz Dreisinger, an English professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, author of the book “Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture.”约翰·杰刑事司法学院(John Jay College of Criminal Justice)英语教授、《近似黑人:美国文化中白人冒充黑人的现象Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture)作者巴兹·德莱辛Baz Dreisinger)表示,“这涉及有关扮演黑人、呈现黑人特征及整个文化遗产的所有问题,这让这种行为显得更加低下。”Some people who have known Dolezal only as a black woman said they felt hurt and misled, saying she could have been an equally effective leader at the NAACP without the disguise.一些只知道多尔扎尔黑人身份的人说,他们感觉受到伤害和误导,并且表示即便没有伪装,她也可以成为同样有力的NAACP领导者。“The issue for me has been the deception, the lie, portraying herself as someone she isnt,said Dorothy Webster, a longtime member of the Spokane NAACP and former deputy manager for the city of Spokane. “I cannot rationalize it.”“对于我来说,问题在于欺骗、撒谎,把自己描绘成另外一个人,”NAACP斯波坎市分会的资深成员、该市的前副城市经理多萝西·韦伯斯Dorothy Webster)说。“我无法理解。”Although her advocacy work has admirers, serious questions have been raised about Dolezals credibility and not just about her race. Her public statements about her family and upbringing have been challenged by relatives, including her parents, creating the odd spectacle of dueling interviews, with her making claims on one network, and them denying them on another. Over the years she has reported numerous complaints with the police of racially motivated harassment and intimidation, though the police have said that none have so far proved credible enough for charges to be brought.虽然她的倡导工作得到钦佩,但除了种族问题,多尔扎尔的信誉也不断饱受质疑。她发表的有关其家庭及成长过程的公开声明遭到了包括父母在内的亲属的回击,以至于出现了双方通过采访隔空斗嘴的奇怪景象:她在一家电视网发表声明,她的家人则在另一家电视网予以否认。多年来,她曾多次向警方举报出于种族动机的骚扰及恐吓行为,但警方表示,到目前为止,没有足够的可信据使其可以提出指控。She is estranged from her parents, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and in Spokane, she has represented a friend, an older African-American man, as her father. When Rachel Dolezal was a teenager, her parents adopted four black children, one of whom now lives with Dolezal and her natural son, whom she had with her former husband, Kevin D. Moore, who is black.她与父母露丝安娜·多尔扎尔(Ruthanne Dolezal)、劳伦斯·多尔扎尔(Lawrence Dolezal)已断绝来往。在斯坡坎,她一直声称一名年长的非裔友人是自己的父亲。蕾切尔·多尔扎尔的父母在她十几岁的时候,收养了四名黑人儿童,其中一人现在与多尔扎尔及她的亲生儿子住在一起。这个亲生孩子的父亲是她的黑人前夫凯文·D·莫尔(Kevin D. Moore)。She is also estranged from her biological brother, Joshua, who is facing charges in Colorado that, when he was 19 years old, he sexually molested one of his adopted brothers, who was 6 or 7 at the time, in the parents home, which was then in Clear Creek County, Colorado. Ruthanne Dolezal told People magazine that the molestation charges are not true and were initiated by Rachel.她同亲生哥哥乔舒Joshua)也形同陌路。目前乔舒亚在科罗拉多州面临数项指控,称其在19岁的时候对父母收养的当时只有六七岁的一个弟弟进行了性骚扰。那时他们还住在科罗拉多州克利尔克里克县的父母家中。露丝安娜·多尔扎尔向《人物》杂People)透露,这些猥亵指控并不属实,而且是由蕾切尔提出的。Dolezals path to this curious point has been unorthodox, beginning with her childhood in a remote corner of northwestern Montana, in and around the little town of Troy. Earlier this year, she told a news organization at Eastern Washington University, where she taught, that she had been born in a teepee, that her mother and stepfather had beaten her and her siblings, that “they would punish us by skin complexion,and that they lived for a time in South Africa.多尔扎尔来到今天这个尴尬境地是经历了一段不同寻常的过往。她小时候住在蒙大拿州西北部偏远地区的小镇特洛伊附近。今年早些时候,她在自己当时任教的东华盛顿大Eastern Washington University)向一家新闻机构表示,自己出生在一顶印第安人的帐篷里,并曾和家人在南非生活过一段时间。蕾切尔称,生母和继父曾痛打他们几个兄弟,“他们会因为我们的肤色而惩罚我们。”Family members say none of this is true. All agree that she has no stepfather, that this was one of several attempts she has made to deny the existence of her real father, Lawrence. Her parents moved to South Africa after Rachel was grown and out of the house.不过,多名家庭成员表示蕾切尔所说的这些话没有一句是真的。他们一致表示她并没有继父,而这不过是她为了否认生父劳伦斯的存在而采取的几项动作之一。再者,蕾切尔长大离家后,她的父母才去了南非。As for the abuse allegations, “thats just false,her father said in an interview on Friday. “Thats the most hurtful.”至于虐待指控,她的父亲在周五接受采访时表示,“完全是假的。那才是最伤人的。”Dolezal said Tuesday on “Todaythat at age 5, “I was drawing self-portraits with the brown crayon instead of the peach crayon, and the black curly hair, you know.Her parents, appearing later on Fox News, denied that.多尔扎尔周二在《今日》节目中说道,“你知道吗,5岁的时候,我画自画像用的就是棕色的笔而不是桃色的笔,头发画的是黑色卷发。”之后,其父母在Fox新闻台对此予以否认。Daniel Dolezal said Tuesday that her recollection of her 5-year-old self did not ring true. “She probably wouldnt have known any black peoplethen, he said. (Efforts by The Times to reach Rachel Dolezal, Ruthanne and Lawrence Dolezal, and Joshua Dolezal on Tuesday were not successful.)丹尼尔·多尔扎尔在周二表示,蕾切尔对自岁时的自画像的回忆并不真实。“她那个时候可能还不认识任何一个黑人,”他说。(时报在周二曾尝试联系蕾切尔·多尔扎尔、露丝安娜和劳伦斯·多尔扎尔夫妇,以及乔舒亚·多尔扎尔,不过均未成功。)Rachel was home-schooled for at least part of the time she was in high school, her uncle said. And when she was between the ages of 15 and 17, her parents adopted four black infants.蕾切尔的叔叔透露,上高中的时候,她至少有一部分时间在家自学。在57岁期间,父母收养了四个黑人婴儿。“She immediately was drawn to them,her father said. “Ever since then shes had a tremendous affinity with African-Americans.”“她立刻就被这些孩子吸引了,”蕾切尔的父亲说。“从此以后,她就同非裔美国人无比地亲近。”In the “Todayinterview one Tuesday and one that followed on a sister network, MSN, Dolezal, remarkably composed despite harsh criticism aimed at her, stuck to her insistence that racial heredity does not equal identity, and she would not answer questions about whether she had changed her self-identification to merely gain advantage.尽管面对着严厉的批评声,多尔扎尔周二在接受《今日》节目及N姊台MSN的采访时展现出了惊人的镇定,仍然坚持认为族裔遗传并不等同于种族认同。对于有关她是否只是为了获得好处而改变自我认同的问题,她均不予回答。Lauer asked if she could have been as successful an activist if she had portrayed herself as white.劳尔还问道,如果她一直把自己描述成白人的话,能否成为同样成功的活动人士?“I dont know,Dolezal said. “I guess I havent had the opportunity to experience that in those shoes, so Im not sure.”“我不知道,”多尔扎尔回答。“我想我没有机会以那样的身份去体验,所以我不确定。”来 /201506/382008

  The ed Nations nuclear agency says its chief has, for the first time, visited a controversial Iranian military site where Western analysts allege that Iranian scientists conducted covert research and testing as they sought to build a nuclear bomb.联合国原子能机构表示,该机构负责人首次造访了伊朗具有争议的一处军事地点。西方分析人士指称伊朗科学家在那里进行秘密研究和测试,以谋求制造原子弹。A spokesman for the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency said Sunday that agency chief Yukiya Amano visited the Parachin base east of Tehran during a recent visit.设在维也纳的国际原子能机构的一名发言人星期天说,该机构总干事天野之弥在最近的一次访问期间,造访了德黑兰以东的帕尔钦基地。His visit comes as Iran and six world powers seek to implement a deal to end a 13-year standoff over Tehrans nuclear ambitions.天野之弥访问这个基地,正值伊朗和世界六大国努力实施一项国际协议之际。这项协议旨在结束针对伊朗核野心而产生的历时13年的僵局。The semi-official Iranian Student News Agency on Sunday ed top Iranian nuclear official Ali Akbar Salehi as saying the Amano visit ;went well and worked within the agreed roadmap; for implementing the deal.伊朗半官方的学生通讯社星期天援引伊朗原子能官员萨利希的话说,天野之弥总干事的“此访顺利,而且是在为实施协议所商定的路线图范围内进行的。”The agreement, unveiled in July, forces Iran to cut back its uranium enrichment to keep it from building nuclear weapons, in exchange for easing harsh Western economic sanctions that have wrecked the Iranian economy.今年7月公布的这项伊朗核协议,迫使伊朗缩减其铀浓缩活动,以阻止其制造核武器,同时作为交换,将减轻西方对伊朗严厉的经济制裁。这些制裁措施已经使伊朗经济受到破坏。来 /201509/400827


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